天方之经与东溟水土:闽台回族历史与伊斯兰文化

Arabian Koran and Oriental Land: The Hui Nationality’s History and Islamic Culture of Fukien and Taiwan

作者: 专业:专门史 导师:谢重光 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
闽台 回族 伊斯兰 历史文化

Keywords
Fukien and Taiwan, the Hui Nationality, Islam, History and Culture
        本文以闽台地域内的回族与伊斯兰文化为研究视野和对象,以历史文献、谱牒资料和田野调查为研究基础,运用历史学、人类学、社会学等理论,考察闽台1300多年的回族历史和伊斯兰文化。从世界伊斯兰教的传播历史和泉州地域人文的各方面条件来分析,伊斯兰教应于10世纪初期传入福建,灵山圣墓也建造于此时。有宋时期,福建回族先民的聚合,对中华文化的热爱,族群通婚的进行等均是穆斯林融入本土的表现。元代,福建穆斯林群体在政治认同、民族认同、文化认同、心理认同等方面具备了民族形成的条件,完成了伊斯兰教“在地化”的进程,融汇多元文化为一体的民族共同体——回族形成。明初,福建回族并非世人所认为的受到严厉压制和打击。改朝换代和环境的变更,促使穆斯林家族迁居异地,在族群接触中引发了激烈的竞争机制,这种碰撞和冲突促使穆斯林进一步融入本土。明清之际移民浪潮的兴起,回族后裔纷纷扬帆渡海,向外移民拓殖。台湾的伊斯兰教随着回族移民的到来而传入。从国民党政府迁台至今,台湾伊斯兰教经历了调整与创建,交替与延续,协调与发展三个历史时期。21世纪两岸伊斯兰教团体正式接触和联系,对海峡两岸的统一具有重要意义。台湾与大陆冰释交融,回族移民后裔纷纷回福建寻根问祖。自然地域、政治环境的变迁,并未改变他们的民族与文化认同。福建伊斯兰文化中的神鸟崇拜,体现了波斯文化的固有信仰与传统。神鸟之谜的揭示有助于我们探察福建穆斯林最原初的本源。在中华大文化与闽台本土文化进一步渗入穆斯林群体内核之时,穆斯林所带有的伊斯兰文化亦对闽台社会产生了深远的影响。伊斯兰文化中的香料文化、海洋文化、顽强不屈的民族精神,精明果敢的商品意识直接参与造就了闽台文化,闽台的服饰、饮食、音乐等社会文化习俗中均保留有浓厚的伊斯兰文化底色。正是有这种博大深邃的异质文化,闽台文化才能如此多姿多彩,别具一格。笔者在文中提出了伊斯兰教10世纪初传入闽地说;福建回族元代形成论;揭示被学界误解的明初穆斯林社会真实境况;考察闽台回族互动交融之历史进程;探察福建伊斯兰文化中鲜为人知的波斯文化成分;挖掘为时人所忽视的闽地伊斯兰文化遗存,希翼以此完善东南族群的研究和补充全国范围内的回族研究。
    This dissertation, with Fukien and Taiwan as the research scope and the historical literature, genealogies and fieldwork as the research basis, through a combined approach of history, anthropology, sociology, makes an all-round exploration and analysis of the Hui Nationality’s history of more than 1300 years and the Islamic culture in Fukien and Taiwan.Based on the dissemination history of Islamism and the location and humanity of Quanzhou, this dissertation concludes that Islamism should stream into Fukien in the early 10th century, and the Muslim Holy Tombs in Quanzhou also should be constructed in this period. In the Sung period, more and more Muslims came and settled together in Fukien. They loved Chinese culture and got married with local people. These show these Muslim migrants gradually merged into local society. During the Yuan Dynasty, the Fukien Muslim groups and communities, from the perspective of political, ethnic, cultural and mental identity, had fulfilled the requirements of ethnic-group formation and finished the indigenization process, and the Hui Nationality with a harmonious blend of multi-culture came into being. In the early Ming Dynasty, the Muslim people weren’t actually subjected to severe suppression and attack. It is the change of dynasty and environment that impelled the Muslim clans to move to other places, which triggered a fierce competition with other ethnic groups. This kind of collision and conflict urged the Muslim people to integrate into the local society further. In the Late Ming and Early Qing period, the migration tide rose, descendants of Fukien Muslim people crossed sea in succession and emigrated to Southeast Asia and Taiwan.The Islamism spread into Taiwan along with the arrival of the mainland’s Muslim immigrants. From 1949 until now, the Taiwanese Islamism experienced three phases: adjusting and establishing, alternating and succeeding, coordinating and developing. In the 21st century, the Mainland and Taiwan’s Islamism groups once again get in touch and keep contact formally, which is of important meaning to the peaceful cross-straits reunification. With the tension between Taiwan and mainland easing, more and more Muslim immigrant descendants in Taiwan returned to Fukien to search for their ancestral root, participated in local religious activities and supported with enthusiasm their hometown construction. These show that the change of residence and political environment does not change their ethnic and cultural identity.The Worship to Holy Bird in the Fukien Islamic culture fully embodies Persian culture’s innate belief and tradition. The rediscovery of the myth of Holy Bird helps us to probe into the original nature of the Fukien Muslim. Over a thousand years when the Chinese traditional culture and the Fukien native culture seeped into the core of Muslim groups, the Islamic culture with strong Persian color also had an profound influence on the society of Fukien and Taiwan. The characteristics of Islamic culture, such as spice culture, marine culture, indomitable national spirit, and wise and resolute business consciousness, enrich and directly help to mould the culture of Fukien and Taiwan, whose social traditions and customs of clothing, catering, music, and so on thus reserve strong Islamic color. With the profound foreign cultures, the culture of Fukien and Taiwan thus becomes so unique, colorful and diversified.This dissertation proposes the viewpoints that it is in the early 10th century that the Islamism spread into Fukien and it is in the Yuan Dynasty that Fukien Hui Nationality came into being, reveals the real situation of Muslim society in the early Ming Dynasty, which is always misunderstood by other scholars, investigates the historical course of interaction and combination of Fukien and Taiwan’s Hui Nationality, analyzes the elements of Persian culture in the Fukien Islamic culture, and rediscovers the neglected Islamic Culture’s remains in Fukien, hoping to supplement and improve the study of the southeastern ethnic groups and the study of the nation-wide Hui Nationality.
        

天方之经与东溟水土:闽台回族历史与伊斯兰文化

摘要2-3
ABSTRACT3-4
中文文摘5-17
第1章 绪论17-41
    1.1 研究史的回顾17-30
        1.1.1 伊斯兰教的传入时间19-21
        1.1.2 福建回族的形成阶段21-24
        1.1.3 福建回族研究的广度和深度24-25
        1.1.4 明初福建社会是否发生“限回”政策及“排回”风潮25-26
        1.1.5 台湾伊斯兰教与闽台回族关系26-27
        1.1.6 闽地伊斯兰文化中的波斯成分27-29
        1.1.7 闽台伊斯兰文化29-30
    1.2 研究意义与目的30-35
    1.3 概念阐释35-36
    1.4 研究理论与方法36-38
    1.5 史料选择38-41
        1.5.1 正史及地方文献38-39
        1.5.2 民间谱碟39
        1.5.3 碑刻墓铭39-41
第2章 伊斯兰教入闽与回回民族的演变41-97
    2.1 唐、五代—蕃客东来41-56
        2.1.1 伊斯兰教的传入42-44
        2.1.2 福建与伊斯兰教44-56
    2.2 宋元—福建伊斯兰教的繁兴56-67
        2.2.1 赵宋王朝的国家政策与蕃商来闽56-61
        2.2.2 元政府的民族宗教政策及福建的政治经济环境61-67
    2.3 明—朱氏王朝的民族政策及福建伊斯兰教的演化67-78
        2.3.1 明初的社会背景与回族群体的境况67-71
        2.3.2 朱氏政权的伊斯兰教政策及对福建穆斯林社会的影响71-78
    2.4 清—福建伊斯兰教的中兴及与穆斯林移民向外拓殖78-94
        2.4.1 清政府的民族政策78-79
        2.4.2 清代福建伊斯兰教的中兴79-87
        2.4.3 伊斯兰教的衰微87-88
        2.4.4 穆斯林后裔向东南亚及台湾等地的移民拓殖88-94
    2.5 小结94-97
第3章 福建回族的形成问题97-187
    3.1 回回群体民族表征的凝塑97-119
        3.1.1 福建回族先民的聚合97-107
        3.1.2 福建回族先民的华化意识与行为107-119
    3.2 回回民族的形成与认同119-148
        3.2.1 回回一词的来源与定型120-124
        3.2.2 回回占籍落户124-129
        3.2.3 福建穆斯林与本土宗教信仰129-137
        3.2.4 民族认同与族群认同137-148
    3.3 伊斯兰本土化的演进148-184
        3.3.1 元末“亦思巴奚”之乱149-156
        3.3.2 “限回”政策与“排回”风潮之辩156-162
        3.3.3 郑和下西洋与福建伊斯兰教162-173
        3.3.4 伊斯兰信仰的淡化与汉回融合173-184
    3.4 小结184-187
第4章 回民渡台与台湾伊斯兰教187-243
    4.1 福建回民渡海迁台的历史进程187-208
        4.1.1 郑和下西洋与台湾回民187-193
        4.1.2 郑成功与福建回民迁台193-197
        4.1.3 清领时期之回民渡台197-205
        4.1.4 民国时期之回民迁台205-208
    4.2 福建回族迁台目的与两岸回民生息相通208-228
        4.2.1 福建回族渡海迁台之目的208-223
        4.2.2 两岸回民缘缘相连223-228
    4.3 台湾伊斯兰教与两地回族的联系228-242
        4.3.1 台湾伊斯兰教的发展历程229-235
        4.3.2 两岸伊斯兰教的对话与交流235-238
        4.3.3 近现代闽台两岸回族的联系238-242
    4.4 小结242-243
第5章 族群冲突、融合及闽台伊斯兰文化243-307
    5.1 矛盾竞争与自我调适243-257
        5.1.1 山海交汇—穆斯林家族之生存地域244-245
        5.1.2 阴阳聚散—“风水”在回族家族中之意义245-250
        5.1.3 曲折困顿—族际间之矛盾冲突250-257
    5.2 穆斯林与本土族群的互动交融257-268
        5.2.1 穆斯林家族与乡土社会的建构257-265
        5.2.2 穆斯林家族行为之动因265-268
    5.3 伊斯兰文化与闽台社会生活268-304
        5.3.1 伊斯兰文化中之波斯文化成分269-275
        5.3.2 物质生活中之伊斯兰文化因素275-288
        5.3.3 社会生活中之伊斯兰文化习俗288-304
    5.4 小结304-307
结论307-313
附录313-323
参考文献323-345
攻读学位期间承担的科研任务与主要成果345-347
致谢347-349
个人简历349-350


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