梦想在泥泞中放飞:自由·自觉·自卑·自毁

—— 老舍与曹禺比较研究
Fly Dreams in the Mire: Freedom; Consciousness; Inferiority; Self-destruction

作者: 专业:中国现当代文学 导师:常文昌 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
比较研究 自由 自觉 自卑 自毁

Keywords
comparative study, freedom, consciousness, inferiority, self-destruction
        选择中国作家之间的平行比较,与研究界盛行的中外文学比较这一“显学”相比,多少有些底气不足甚至“陈旧老土”,但据笔者了解,目前国内外关于老舍、曹禺研究的学术论文尽管很多,但就两人之间直接进行比较研究的文章尚不多见;有关老舍、曹禺单个作家研究的学术专著为数不少,但关于老舍与曹禺系统比较研究的专著尚未见到,这样的研究现状为笔者催生出巨大的学术诱惑,使得笔者最终下定决心完成这一颇具挑战性的研究课题。本文从六个章节以平行比较的方法凸显老舍和曹禺在家族文化、女性思考、戏剧构想、宗教信仰、文学理想、晚年境况等方面的异同,希冀以此来拓展老舍、曹禺研究的学术领地和研究空间。老舍、曹禺截然不同的贫富家世出身,对他们以后的人生道路有着深刻的影响,无论是一生以贵族气息浓厚的戏剧创作暴露上流社会生存状态的曹禺,还是始终同情描摹下层贫苦市民风俗情态的老舍,在他们精彩的文学世界中,不难看到各自家族文化遗留在自己创作心理上的宝贵刻痕,他们均扬长避短地继承和发扬了各自家族文化中潜在的良性质素,成就了自己的伟业。老舍在探索女性解放道路的历程中,始终站在男性主义的立场上强调理想女性的温顺底色,曹禺则以女性中心主义的立场和姿态呼唤女性的叛逆,通过决绝激烈的彻底叛逆,荡涤千百年来封建社会父权、夫权、族权、神权加在女性灵魂和肉体上的魔力。老舍和曹禺独具特色的婚恋择偶标准既是他们女性观的集中体现也是他们和女性真切交往的现实反映。曹禺戏剧所展现出来的对现代人生存命运的关注、对人性深彻的洞察力、对文化传统的超越与反叛以及由此所带来的艺术观念的先锋性,无不浸透着他自己独特的生命体验。设若没有革命激情的涌动,稳重理智的平民作家老舍可能不会从事话剧创作,面对革命狂欢,老舍以他的勤奋和才智,为中国剧坛贡献出数量极为丰富的话剧作品,凝结着他对革命的思考和话剧艺术的不懈探索。诗化戏剧与小说化戏剧使曹禺和老舍在戏剧场所设置、人物塑造、艺术格调等方面形成不同的创作风貌。总体上来看,曹禺戏剧以点连线,形成色彩斑斓的都市风情线,老舍戏剧聚点成面,描摹出冲淡悠远的世态风俗画,映现出他们对人生与人性、社会与文化、生命与生活的思考和探索。老舍、曹禺一生对佛教、道教、基督教都有所涉猎,他们能够理智地汲取各样宗教教义所蕴含的文化精髓,剔除其中包含的迷信和糟粕,既不简单地把宗教看成“人类精神的鸦片”一味排斥,也不走火入魔迷失自我,而是为我所用,形成独特的宗教文化观念,对后世中国文人具有极强的示范性。老舍在面对西学东渐不可逆转的世界潮流时,并没有随他人人云亦云地全盘否定掉中国传统文化,在中国仁人志士们苦苦觅求救国救民的灵丹妙药之时,他始终对传承几千年的中国传统文化投去深情的一瞥,表现出深深的眷恋之情,曹禺则是满怀“原始向往”之情开始自己的创作生涯,原始向往始终是贯穿他早期文学创作的一股潜流,是促使他从事戏剧创作最深刻、最稳定、最强大的“原动力”,也是作家为狭之笼中的鸟儿们冲破樊篱开出的灵丹妙药。建国后,老舍和曹禺作为著名作家受到中共方面极高的礼遇和优待,但是新中国文学制度显然是以毛泽东为首的中共领导人对于现代民族国家预设为圭臬,无法顾及到老舍、曹禺对于文学审美特性的理想诉求,新的文学制度与文学语境自然成为老舍、曹禺们无法逾越的障碍。在同样的文学体制和环境下,曹禺的勉强善终和老舍的以死抗争都承载了太多的历史文化意蕴,投湖抑或苟活,是中国文人在那个特殊的历史时段不得不面对的抉择,哪种选择更为明智?这确是一个二难选择,就像面对“宁为玉碎,不为瓦全”和“留得青山在,不怕没柴烧”这两个古老的中国谚语,谁都很难分出两者所包含的人类智慧高下,根本不易甚至也无法给出正确的答案。
    The comparison between parallel comparison among chinese writers and chinese literature and foreign is more or less insufficient.At present,alone research papers about Lao She or Cao Yu are more,but monographs about systematic comparison between Lao She and Cao Yu aren’t searched for,the investigational status breeds large academic temptation for me,it tries me to decide to complete a difficult research topic.the main body of a thesis consists of six chapters:Lao She and Cao Yu’s family culture,female thought,drama scheme,religional belief,literature ideal, situation at old age.through the comparison among six aspects about Lao She and Cao Yu,hoping to expand academic territory and research space.Lao She and Cao Yu have completely different family background,it effected their life way deeply,whether Cao Yu who made use of the thick noble flavor drama creative work to expose the existence of high society or Lao She who compassionated and delineated custom and situation all along,in their brilliant literary world,it is easy to find that respective family culture remain value notch in themselves psychology of creative work,they all adopted their good points and avoid his short-comings to succeed and develop potential optimum nature in respective family culture,and achieve their great achievement.In the course of exploring female liberation,Lao She emphasized gentle nature of ideal female at the standpoint of male doctrine all the time,but Cao Yu called out female rebel at the standpoint and deportment of female core doctrine,by means of impetuous thorough rebel,to wash female spirit and physical magic power from father right,husband right,family right,divine right in feudalist societies.Only characteristic standard of selecting a mate or spouse is concentrated reflection their female view as well as practical reflection of their female actual contiguity.Cao Yu’s drama revealed close attention to modern people survival fate、thorough insight on human nature、distillation from and rebellion against orthodox culture to produce pioneering artistic concept,there saturated himself distinct life experience personally everywhere.to face revolutional fervor,Lao She made use of his diligence and wisdom to create profuse modern dramas for chinese drama platform,they condensed his thought on revolution and exploration for modern drama art.poetic drama and fictional drama is respectivly style of creative work,seeing from ensemble,Cao Yu’s drama lined by means of dots to form gorgeous line of city amorous feelings,Lao She’s drama gathered dots to form extent, delineated ordinary genre painting about status of the world,and reflected people’s thought and exploration for life and human nature、society and culture、life and living.Lao She and Cao Yu got in touch with Buddhism、Taoism、Christianity somewhat throughout their lifes,they drew sensibly marrow of culture from various kinds religional canons,and got red of superstition and dregs among them,they neither excluded constantly religion as "opium of human spirit" simply nor lost oneself,they made use of them to from the distinctive conception of religional culture that had very demonstration about later chinese scholars.Facing that not reversible the tide of the world of western thought entered,Lao She didn’t follow other to repeat parrot style to deny chinese traditional culture overall,when chinese people with lofty ideals hunted for nullihaploid to helpcountry and help people,he threw deep feeling glance at chinese traditional culture all along,and was attached to it deeply.But Cao Yu filled his heart with primitive appreciation to begin creating,primitive appreciation penetrated his earlier period literary creative work,was motive power which impelled him into drama creative work,and was nullihaploid that he prescribe for birds in narrow cage to break through railing.After building up the People’s Republic of China,as famous writers,Lao She and Cao Yu received very high courteous reception from the Chinese Communist Party,but new chinese literary system was the model which the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party designed for modern national country obviously,it did not take into account Lao She and Cao Yu’s ideal requirement on literary esthetic character,naturally,Lao She and Cao Yu impossibly oversteped new chinese literary system and literary language circumstance.Under same literary system and circumstance,Cao Yu died a natural death and Lao She resisted it by means of suicide bore the weight of more historical connotation of culture,whose choice was more sensible?this was very difficult to judge,just as:rather jade is broken than tile is conserved entirely and to remain green hills,not to be afraid that there is not firewood to bum are both old chinese proverb,it is very difficult to tell whose wisdom is high or low.
        

梦想在泥泞中放飞:自由·自觉·自卑·自毁

中文摘要6-8
英文摘要8-9
引言10-12
第一章 家族文化与个性气质12-38
    第一节 家族文化与个体成长12-15
    第二节 家族悲剧与童年体验15-21
    第三节 家庭变故与个性气质21-26
    第四节 个性气质的外化:生活与交友26-37
    注释37-38
第二章 女性关怀:叛逆与温顺38-65
    第一节 "第二性":现代文明的标杆38-42
    第二节 曹禺:"我愿用最美好的言词来描写最美好的妇女"42-46
    第三节 老舍:"女人永远是男人的附属品"46-50
    第四节 探索女性救赎之路:叛逆与温顺50-54
    第五节 婚恋择偶:人生旅途的别样风景54-62
    注释62-65
第三章 曹禺、老舍与百年中国话剧65-86
    第一节 生命体验与革命狂欢65-73
    第二节 诗化戏剧与小说化戏剧73-79
    第三节 都市风情线与世态风俗画79-84
    注释84-86
第四章 宗教与文学86-115
    第一节 中国文人的宗教信仰86-91
    第二节 耶佛并尊与弃佛从耶91-102
    第三节 宗教熏染下的文学创作102-112
    注释112-115
第五章 主体建构与文学理想115-140
    第一节 主体建构与文体选择115-123
    第二节 传统怀念与原始向往123-131
    第三节 共疗孱弱人格的热望131-138
    注释138-140
第六章 同途殊归:以死抗争与勉强善终140-170
    第一节 荣耀与惶惑140-148
    第二节 当代文学制度与文人创作148-157
    第三节 以死抗争与勉强善终157-167
    注释167-170
结语170-172
主要参考文献172-177
攻读博士学位期间发表论文情况177-178
后记178


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