中国大学生休闲服消费价值体系研究

Research on Consumer Value System of Sportswear Regarding to Chinese College Students

作者: 专业:纺织工程 导师:顾庆良 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
顾客价值 价值观 消费价值体系 品牌认知 休闲服

Keywords
Customer value, values, consumption value system, brand acknowledge, sportswear
        近年来,中国经济保持高速增长的势头,居民收入不断增加,服装消费持续扩大,中国服装市场已成为重要的国际市场,引来了国内外企业的角逐。随着中国休闲服市场产能的进一步放大,国内外品牌间的竞争日趋加剧,企业如何保持和提高品牌的竞争优势,已引起企业界和理论界的关注。本研究回顾了竞争优势的相关理论,尤其是顾客价值理论。顾客价值理论是营销学界几十年来倡导顾客导向的新发展,它也是在企业竞争激烈和消费者主权意识不断强化的现实背景下的产物。称之为竞争优势新源泉的顾客价值的发现,为市场营销的研究确立了以顾客为中心进而以顾客价值为中心的地位,这是营销理论的进步。但是,以往顾客价值的研究偏重于顾客的感知价值,没有很好回答顾客是以什么尺度来感知的。本研究认为有必要在研究顾客感知价值的基础上,进一步研究其背后的价值传导机制,即消费价值观的作用。什么是消费价值观?本研究进而回顾了消费价值观的相关理论,发现在诸多影响消费行为的因素中,价值观因素的重要地位和作用无可置疑。然而,多数的研究却停留在一般的价值观上,难以被营销学有效应用。因此,本研究提出价值观的重构性论点,将价值观置于顾客价值系统中研究,研究与消费行为、顾客感知价值直接相连的重构后的价值观,即具体的消费价值观。本选题正是基于中国休闲服市场的现实背景和对上述相关理论的逻辑思考展开研究。一、研究的主要目的本研究企图在顾客价值和价值观研究的结合点上将研究引向深入,为营销学应用研究提供新的理论视角;同时面对中国休闲服市场的竞争格局,以大学生消费市场为例,进行市场分析提出见解,为企业界的营销决策提供思路和现实参考;本研究虽然限于对中国大学生休闲服消费价值体系的实证研究上,但其研究思路和方法,可为相似的研究领域提供借鉴。二、研究的主要方法本研究要揭示的消费价值观,限定在休闲服消费上,拟解决的关键性问题主要是:采用什么方法捕获到尽可能全的中国人休闲服消费的价值元素;将所捕获到的这些价值元素如何转化为高信度、高效度的休闲服价值观测量量表。为此,本研究的方法在吸取了以往关于顾客价值和价值观研究,尤其是Woodruff和罗兰·贝格公司的方法和思想的基础上,针对服装的意义和服饰文化消费的特点,采用质化研究和量化研究相结合。先进行质化研究,直接与消费者接触,进行深度访谈、半开放式访谈和焦点小组访谈,运用“扎根理论”(Grounded theory)方法,对中国人不同人群的休闲服消费的价值元素进行探察,生成价值元素初胚,然后比照罗兰·贝格公司开发的消费者价值元素表,按照服饰符号的消费语言进行逻辑归并和语汇提炼,形成中国人不同人群休闲服消费价值元素分布表,进而扩展为休闲服消费价值观测量量表,在此基础上以庞大的消费群体——中国大学生为对象作定量研究。在量化研究阶段,先对所设计的“个人一般价值观”、“休闲服消费价值观”和“自我概念”三大问卷进行可靠性和效度分析以确保研究的有效性,数据分析在量化问卷调查的基础上主要应用了频数统计分析、因子分析、聚类分析、相关分析、方差分析和对应分析等方法。在研究方法的创新上,避免了单一质化研究和单一量化研究方法的不足。三、研究的主要成果及其意义(一)对中国大学生休闲服消费价值体系进行探索性分析1、首先对中国大学生休闲服消费价值观量化问卷所调查的样本数据进行频数统计趋向性分析,发现呈现的主要特点有:(1)“个性化”和“简约”已成为潮流,而寻“刺激”、找“激情”总体收敛;(2)追求“美感”,更不放弃“舒适”,两者兼得才是完美;(3)重“美誉”、讲“质量”,重“服务”、讲“信用”,求实际、不求高贵,“明智”有素;(4)求新不求怪异,明星、偶像效应淡化、时尚指数不高;(5)“个性化”不是“唯我化”,社会责任感和人际“亲和力”在强化。2、其次对样本数据进行因子分析,揭示出以“舒适”、“个性”、“简约”、“美誉”、“责任”、“服务”、“价格”、“明智”、“独特”、“激情”、“刺激”、“品位”、“性差”、“质量”、“活力”、“偶像”、“时尚”、“亲和”和“美感”等十九个价值元素为矢量的休闲服消费价值体系,并以因子均值和标准差为参数勾画出19个价值元素坐标四方位图,从总体上描述了中国大学生休闲服消费多维的价值取向结构。3、再者进行聚类分析,对上述十九个休闲服消费价值元素作不同量值的分类,发现在样本总量中可以细分为有较大区分度的三个类别,呈现出大学生消费群体中存在休闲服消费价值体系不同的亚群体,可为以消费价值观为取向的企业品牌价值定位提供参考基谱。(二)引入中国大学生个人一般价值观、自我概念、人口统计属项三大变量对休闲服消费价值体系作相关性分析1、首先对大学生个人一般价值观和自我概念二大变量的调查数据进行独立分析,分析比较发现大学生有其自身的一般价值观,并且大学生群体中在价值观上存在亚群体特征;大学生的自我概念中实际自我概念和理想自我概念的拟合关系反差较大,可见想改变实际自我形象强烈,同时在理想自我概念中亚群体差异也比较明显,表现出不同个性倾向。2、其次进行了变量间的相关性分析,验证了大学生个人一般价值观无论在构成上,还是在分类上与休闲服消费价值体系存在显著相关,说明重构后的消费价值观其内在还受个人一般价值观支配着;自我概念与休闲服消费价值体系具有相关性,虽然不及个人一般价值观,但也有较大相关,可见自我概念不仅直接影响消费行为,而且在一定程度上通过对消费价值观的作用也可以影响消费行为;人口统计属项的九个统计标志中,“就学区域”、“居住地”和“性别”三大属项与休闲服消费价值体系相关性较为明显,其中“就学区域”上的明显差异性,对企业分区营销策略具有直接指导意义。(三)列举市场若干休闲服品牌,分析大学生品牌选择行为与其休闲服消费价值体系的相关性,初步发现:①越贴近中国大学生休闲服消费总体上价值体系的品牌,越能赢得更大的市场占有率;②列举的11个品牌选择上,在中国大学生十九个休闲服消费的价值元素中,存在显著性差异的有“激情”、“价格”、“品位”、“时尚”和“偶像”等五大元素,其余十四大元素差异不明显。此数据反应出当前在市场上左右大学生对不同品牌的选择行为,主要取决其消费价值体系中上述五大价值元素得分上的差异性,同时也反应出大学生对11个品牌价值的认知,在五大价值元素上有着明显的区分,至于11个品牌在其余的十四个价值元素上,或许存在同质化倾向。(四)通过对大学生休闲服品牌选择与其三类亚群体的休闲服消费价值体系进行对应分析,发现在完全可以解释的二大维度上对应性不显著,反应出当前市场上品牌同质化、供不对求现象明显,这一结论可为企业以消费价值体系为向度进行市场细分,重新界定品牌定位,提供参考。(五)基于本研究的结论和相关的理论,认为消费者理性的购买行为是建立在对各品牌了解形成品牌知识的基础上,并以其内在的消费价值体系为尺度进行衡量比较,拟合度的高低将影响消费者的购买决策,其中起决定性作用的因素是消费价值观,这一过程本研究把它称之为“消费价值观驱动下的品牌认知模型”,这个模型的提出,可为企业更有效持久地实施品牌管理提供了新的思路和范式。(六)服饰消费行为是一种较为复杂的人文现象,它受制于服饰消费的价值观、服饰符号等多种变量,是多种变量动态组合的结果。因此,研究服饰消费行为,有必要对相关主要变量及其发展关系进一步展开研究。
    Chinese Apparel market has become to be the one of the most important international markets with the grown of China economic, residents’ income and consumption of apparel in recent years, which is attentive to many domestic and foreign enterprises. How to maintain and increase the competitive advantages of local brands has been paid more attention by business and the theoretical circle with the enlargement of the output for China sportswear market and the intensified competition.This work reviews the theories about competitive advantages, especially the customer value theory. The customer value theory is the new development advocating customer oriented concept for the marketing world in last few decades. It is resulted from the intensified enterprises competition and the strengthening consumerism awareness. The discovery of customer value is the new source of competition advantage. However, most research on customer value stress to the sensation value of customer, not to the measurement of sensation. In this study, it is necessary to develop further research on the value conduction mechanism, namely the function of expense values, based on the study of customer sensation value. What are the consumption values? The paper reviewed the theories about the consuming values and discovered that the important status and function of the values element is undoubtedly comparing to the other factors. However, most studies are limited on the general values, which could not efficiently employ into marketing. Therefore, this paper restructures the value system, places the values into the consumer value system, and investigates the restructured values integrated by the consuming behavior and the customer sensation value, namely the concrete consuming values.This topic is chosen based on the background reality of China sportswear market and the understanding of above theories.1 Main Research PurposeThis study applied marketing research integrated with the research of costumer value and values. Regarding to the competition in the China sportswear market, taking the college students, particular opinions are presented to support enterprises marketing decision. Although this study focuses on the empirical study of China college students’ sportswear expense value system, the researching and thinking method could be reference for similar subjects.2 Main Research MethodsThis work is supposed to reveal the consumers’ values focus on sportswear consumption. The crucial problems are mainly how to capture the value elements of Chinese sportswear consumption, converting these captured elements into the high reliability and efficiency of the sportswear values measurement list. Therefore, the significant and the distinguish dematerialized and quantized research are combined together based on the former customer values research results, especially the methods and thoughts from Woodruff and Roland Bag Company. Dematerialized study started from the deep interview, semi-open interview and central issue group interview with customers. Grounded theory is applied to explore the value elements of sportswear consumption for different Chinese so as to create the early embryo of value elements. Comparing to the costumer value elements table developed by Roland Bag Company. Chinese sportswear consumption value elements distribution table are conformed according to the logic mergence and vocabulary refining from the garment symbols of consumption language, which could be extended to be sportswear consumption values measurement table take China college students as the subjects. Three designed questionnaire: "general personal values", "sportswear consumption values", "self conception", are applied to analyze the reliability and efficiency to make confirmation of the action of research. Based on the questionnaire survey, the frequency statistics analysis, factor analysis, clustering analysis, interrelation analysis, variance analysis, correspondence analysis were applied.3 Main Research Results and signification3.1 Exploratory analysis on China college students’ sportswear consumption value system.3.1.1 Frequency analyzing based on questionnaire survey shows the following characteristics, mainly:①"personality" and "simple" have been the trendy, while the "stimulation" or "enthusiasm" tend to be convergent.②Pursuing "aesthetic", not departing "comfort", well balanced both sides.③Stressing on "fine reputation", "quality", "service", "credit", "practice", not only the grandeur.④Encouraging the innovation, not the unearthliness, playing down the effect of entertainment stars or idols, decreasing the fashion index.⑤"personality" is not the "self central". Social sense of responsibility and interpersonal "feeling of affinity" are both intensified.3.1.2 Factor analysis, revealing 19 value element vectors, which include "comfort", "personality", "simple", "fine reputation", "responsibility", "service", "price", "wisdom", "distinction", "enthusiasm", "stimulation", "taste", "sex difference", "quality", "vigor", "idol", "fashion", "affinity", "aesthetic" and so on. Four orientation diagrams coordinated with the average factors and the standard deviations of these 19 value elements, described the multi directional value orientation structure for China college students’ sportswear consumption.3.1.3 Clustering analysis are applied to classify the former 19 value elements, which discovered that three inferior group are classified from the college students’ consumption group based on the whole specimen data. It could be the reference of enterprise brand building for the orientation of consumption values.3.2 General personal values, self conception and demographic are lead into as three major variables for the interrelationship analysis of sportswear consumption value system.3.2.1 Firstly, the college students having their general values and existing the inferior group feature regarding to the consumption values. The contrast of fitting result between the practical and the ideal self central conception in college students are quite large, which means they have the intensified practical self-look changing intention and have the obvious inferior group divergence in the ideal self central conception.3.2.2 Correlate analysis are undertaken to verify that the obvious interrelationship exists between the sportswear consumption value system and the structure or classify of the college students’ general value, which illustrates that the inherence of restructured consumption values is still controlled by the values. Self central conception and consumption value system have the comparatively large interrelationship, which is inferior to general personal values. It is evidently that self central conception influence the consumer behavior not only directly but also indirectly by the action on expensing values in some extent. Among to nine statistic demographic indexes, "school region", "residence" and "gender" are three items significantly interrelated with sportswear consumption value system. The obvious difference of "school region" has the directly guiding significance for the district marketing policy for enterprises.3.3 The interrelationship between brand selecting behavior and the corresponding sportswear consumption value system for college students are analyzed and discovered that:3.3.1 The brands which match the general value system of China college students’ sportswear consumption have more opportunity to get larger market share.3.3.2 Regarding to 11 sample brands, five elements "enthusiasm", "price", "taste", "fashion", "idol" have significant differences, and the others are not obvious. The results illustrate that the motivation for the brand selection behavior of college students in the present market mainly depend on the difference of former five value elements. It also reflects that acknowledge of the 11 brands value has the evident distinction on the five value elements. Those 11 brands probably have the homogeneity tendency regarding to the other 14 value elements. 3.4 The insignificance of correspondence in two directions is found to be explained thoroughly by comparing the selection of college students’ sportswear brand and the one of its three clusters, which reflects that the homogenization and shortage supply of present market. This conclusion could be good reference for the market targeting and segmentation for enterprises and the relocation of brand.3.5 In conclusion the rational purchase behavior of consumer is established on the brand knowledge known from kinds of brands, and is compared by the measure of its inner consumption value system. The fitting influences the purchase decision. Consumption values play an decisive role. This study procedure is named as "The brand acknowledge of model driven by consumption values", which could provide the new idea and paradigm for enterprises to carry out the long term and effective brand management.3.6 Clothing consumption behavior is one kind of complex phenomenon, which is restrained to many variables. Therefore, the further study on the related variables and its development relations is necessary to be focused for the research of clothing consumption behavior.
        

中国大学生休闲服消费价值体系研究

摘要6-10
Abstract10-14
第一章 研究问题的提出21-33
    1.1 引言21
    1.2 顾客价值理论的回顾21-32
        1.2.1 顾客价值与竞争优势21-22
        1.2.2 顾客价值内涵的概述22-26
        1.2.3 顾客价值的层次26-27
        1.2.4 顾客价值的探察与测量方法27-29
        1.2.5 对顾客价值理论的讨论29-32
    1.3 研究问题的提出32-33
第二章 消费者价值观相关研究综述33-61
    2.1 价值观与消费行为33-43
        2.1.1 M·洛基奇对价值观的研究34
        2.1.2 德尔·L·霍金斯等人的三种价值观34-36
        2.1.3 Engel,Blackwell和Minard(1990)提出的个人价值观与社会价值观36
        2.1.4 Sheth,Newman和Cross的以价值观为重要元素的消费者行为模式36-37
        2.1.5 Holbrood的消费者价值独特模式37-39
        2.1.6 罗兰·贝格消费价值元素表39-41
        2.1.7 中国学者对消费价值观的相关研究41-43
    2.2 价值观的测量方法43-47
    2.3 价值观与服装消费47-58
        2.3.1 服装的意义47-50
        2.3.2 价值观与服饰行为50-54
        2.3.3 自我概念与服装消费54-56
        2.3.4 品牌定位与价值观个案56-57
        2.3.5 服装价值需求元素57-58
    2.4 文献启示58-61
第三章 研究架构61-70
    3.1 主要概念的界定61-62
    3.2 研究内容和目标62
    3.3 研究的主要目的62-63
    3.4 拟解决的关键性问题63
    3.5 量化研究模型63-64
    3.6 研究流程64-65
    3.7 研究路径和方法65-67
        3.7.1 研究方法概述65
        3.7.2 质化研究方法65-66
        3.7.3 具体探察方法66
        3.7.4 问卷的采用与设计66-67
        3.7.5 实施测量67
        3.7.6 进行数据处理和分析67
    3.8 论文的结构67-70
第四章 质化研究分析与结果70-74
    4.1 样本分布和访谈提纲70-72
    4.2 质化研究结果72
    4.3 休闲服消费价值观测量量表形成72-74
第五章 信度、效度分析74-81
    5.1 样本特征74-76
    5.2 个人价值观量表可靠性及效度分析76-77
    5.3 休闲服消费价值观量表可靠性及效度分析77-80
    5.4 自我概念量表可靠性及效度分析80-81
第六章 中国大学生休闲服消费价值体系分析81-97
    6.1 休闲服消费价值观量表频数分析81-85
    6.2 休闲服消费价值观因子分析85-95
    6.3 休闲服消费价值观聚类分析95-97
第七章 中国大学生个人价值观分析97-102
    7.1 个人价值观量表频数分析97-98
    7.2 个人价值观因子分析98-100
    7.3 个人价值观聚类分析100-102
第八章 中国大学生自我概念分析102-108
    8.1 实际自我概念和理想自我概念比较分析102-104
    8.2 理想自我概念因子分析104-106
    8.3 理想自我概念聚类分析106-108
第九章 相关性分析108-130
    9.1 中国大学生个人价值观与休闲服消费价值体系相关性分析108-112
        9.1.1 个人价值观与休闲服消费价值元素相关分析108-110
        9.1.2 个人价值观聚类与休闲服消费价值观方差分析110-112
    9.2 中国大学生理想自我概念与休闲服消费价值体系相关性分析112-116
        9.2.1 理想自我概念与休闲服消费价值元素相关分析112-114
        9.2.2 理想自我概念聚类与休闲服消费价值观方差分析114-116
    9.3 中国大学生人口统计变量与休闲服消费价值观方差分析116-125
    9.4 中国大学生品牌选择与休闲服消费价值体系相关度分析125-130
第十章 研究结论与展望130-141
    10.1 营销建议130-136
    10.2 研究结论136-138
    10.3 研究的贡献138-139
    10.4 研究的局限及进一步研究的方向139-141
参考文献141-153
附件1 中国大学生休闲服消费价值观调查问卷153-157
附件2 中国大学生休闲服消费价值观调查问卷157-162
致谢162


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