地方政府创新与民营经济发展机制研究

—— 以“台州现象”为例(1978-2007)
Study on Development Mechanism of Economy between the Local Government and the Private Enterprise

作者: 专业:中国近现代史 导师:温锐 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
民间主体 市场机制 政府干预 企业家行为 制度规范

Keywords
Private-dominated Economy, Market Mechanism, Government intervention, Entrepreneurial behaviour, Institution Regulation
        本论题是关于改革开放30年来浙江台州地方政府创新与民营经济发展的“台州现象”案例研究。本文以台州地方政府与民营经济发展的历史为主线,剖析了台州民营经济的组织结构,勾勒了由“产业集群、专业市场、民间金融”构成的台州民营经济体系。“台州现象”是民间与政府的协作共同推动民营经济发展的过程,是经济发展与制度成长的历史过程,其中“民间主体、市场主导、政府推动、制度规范”构成了“台州现象”的经济发展逻辑,基于价值规律的市场制度成为台州经济运行的平台,民间主体与地方政府的增进式博弈构成了台州经济发展的基本动力。“台州现象”本质特征是民间力量和政府力量互动合作推动区域发展的有效经济制序。在“台州现象”中,产业集群使制造业企业的空间集聚构成了具有分工协作功能的专业化产业链,这个产业链扩张了中小企业的生产能力,强化了地方中小企业的根植性和内在成长性。专业市场是把数量多规模小的家庭工业生产与社会大需求联结起来的产业组织,其所产生的规模效应弥补了家庭工业规模缺陷,强化了集群的产业功能,而且其自身也发展成为具有创造价值和分工职能的产业部门。民间金融把民间个人财产转化为民营企业的金融资源,不仅解决了小规模企业的融资来源,还实现了民间货币资产的增值,民间金融市场极大地弥补了正规金融体系的缺陷。产业集群、专业市场、民间金融的市场绩效是通过企业家行为体现出来的,台州人所表现出来的企业家资源禀赋和创新能力是区域发展的表面现象,从本质上说,企业家禀赋的差异是由市场制度的充分和完善程度决定的,也就是说,区域经济体中并不缺少企业家资源,而是缺少发现企业家资源的市场制度。民间主体的分散决策决定市场秩序不可能实现自我维护。台州地方政府干预的突出特点是既保护民间活力,又维护市场秩序,借助市场之手把民间的自利行为转化为共同发展的社会福利。民间的互惠式经济关系与政府的生产性政治关系构成了台州发展的核心优势。在这种关系中的民营企业家不仅善于发现市场机会、也善于发现管制壁垒后的经营机会,市场竞争与政府干预的双重激励成就了一批具有政治智慧的企业家。随着市场主体的不断成熟和市场经济体系的不断完善,台州地方政府开始探索改善政府职能服务地方经济发展的道路。台州的经验说明:有效的市场机制不只是配置资源、调节供求和促进竞争,还要能够促进民间力量与政府力量之间的建立有效合作制序,市场经济制序是政府职能明晰的前提和基础。
    This study is a case study on development mechanism of economy between the local government and the private enterprise in Taizhou in the practice of the reform and opening in the past 30 years in China. This paper expatiates the history of development on the local government innovation and the private economy in Taizhou, analyzes the organizational structure of the private economy, outlined the system of private economy of Taizhou consists of The Industry Cluster, The Specialization Wholesale Market and Nongovernmental Money Market, saying that economy development and system growth in Taizhou is a historical process, the popular collaboration with the Government promote the development of the private economy in Taizhou. The basic economic logic of Taizhou Phenomenon is compose of The Private-dominated Economy, The Market-oriented System, The Government-promoted Development, The Institution-hold Regulation. The basic logics abovementioned offers the stage of economic development for the market system on the basis of the law of the value. Moreover, the cooperation between government and private serves as the economic drive. This kind of cooperation is characteristic of efficient market order.As for The Taizhou phenomenon, the industry clusters mass-based SMEs results the industrial chain with a specialization and collaboration, the industrial chain expand the production capacity of SMEs and strengthen SMEs local-rooted and intrinsic-growth. The Specialization Wholesale Market is an organization which joints the large number of small-scale home-made production and social needs together, it’s effect of scale make up the defects of small-scale home-made production, and strengthen the function of industry clusters, has evolved as the industry sector which take on the regional specialization of production and the value-creating functions. Nongovernmental financial market transform private individuals assets to the private enterprises into the financial resources, in addition to solves the small-scale enterprises sources of financing, but also makes the popular monetary active assets, nongovernmental financial markets has greatly make up deficiencies of the governmental financial system, the market performance of the Industry Cluster, The Specialization Wholesale Market, Nongovernmental Money Market is reflected through acts of entrepreneurs, the natural parts of entrepreneurs of Taizhou and their innovation ability demonstrated representation of the regional economy development. in essence, the differences from the natural parts of entrepreneurs lie on the market system and it’s the level of improvement, that is, in the regional economy is not lack of resources entrepreneurs, but the lack of resources that market system adapts to entrepreneurs.Because of decentralized decision-making business, market order can not be achieved self-maintenance. Local government’s intervention in Taizhou has a prominent characteristic of both boosting up the vitality of the private sector, and maintaining the market order, and transforms the private business acts into the development of common welfare by market system. The reciprocal economic relations of the private sectors and the producing political relations of constitute the core advantage of the development of Taizhou. The private entrepreneurs in the relations not only be good at discovering opportunities of market, but also finding that business opportunities on the back of regulatory barriers, market competition and governmental intervention achieves the double incentive to a group of political entrepreneurs. Popular-dominated Economy, The Market-oriented Institution, The Government-promoted Development, The Regulate-hold System build the interactive developing economic institutions between the private enterprises and government intervention in Taizhou. With the private enterprises growing and the improved the market economic system continuously, Taizhou local government begins to explore how to improve the services of the government to local economic development. Taizhou’s experience indicates that, effective market mechanism is not only allocating resources, adjusting supply and demand, and promoting competition, but also to advancing the effective cooperative system sequence of the popular and government.
        

地方政府创新与民营经济发展机制研究

摘要2-3
Abstract3-4
中文文摘5-9
Contents9-11
第1章 绪论11-25
    1.1 课题研究背景11-13
    1.2 课题研究的相关回顾13-18
    1.3 课题的研究方法18-20
    1.4 本题的研究思路20-25
第2章 从管制壁垒消解到规范市场秩序25-47
    2.1 从机会到产权的政府激励25-30
    2.2 确立民间的市场主体地位30-35
    2.3 规范政府行为与市场秩序35-41
    2.4 经济民主化的政治路径41-45
    2.5 总结性评述45-47
第3章 政府发展导向与产业集群成长47-67
    3.1 台州产业集群的结构分析47-54
    3.2 产业集群的内生机制分析54-59
    3.3 政府导向与产业集群的经济绩效59-65
    3.4 总结性评述65-67
第4章 政府干预与专业市场转型升级67-103
    4.1 专业市场与民间工业化的启动67-74
    4.2 专业市场的集群效应74-78
    4.3 专业市场成长与区域经济结构的转型78-86
    4.4 台州、温州眼镜业的市场博弈86-92
    4.5 市场力量与政府力量的融合92-101
    4.6 总结性评述101-103
第5章 民间金融的内生效率与制度转轨103-139
    5.1 台州民间金融的制度背景103-112
    5.2 民间财产资本化与民间融资组织化112-119
    5.3 中小企业、民间金融与政府规制119-130
    5.4 市场导向与政府目标的统一130-138
    5.5 总结性评述138-139
第6章 企业家生成机制与企业成长模式139-165
    6.1 企业家理论及补充论证139-144
    6.2 民营企业家的成长道路:飞跃集团与吉利集团144-154
    6.3 民营企业家与企业的生成与成长路径154-163
    6.4 总结性评述163-165
第7章 历史与制度的总结165-171
    7.1 民间力量需要自由和规制165-166
    7.2 经济制序需要中间规范166-167
    7.3 政府干预需要尊重市场167-168
    7.4 "台州现象"余论168-171
结论171-173
附录173-175
参考文献175-182
攻读博士学位期间承担的科研任务与主要成果182-183
致谢183-184
个人简历184-185


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