台湾地区大学生人格与心理健康现况研究

The Study of Personalities and Mental Health Status among College Students in Taiwan (China)

作者: 专业:基础心理科学 导师:孔克勤 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
大学生 人格 心理健康 赖氏人格量表 布麦氏量表 贝克氏情绪量表 特质 外向-内

Keywords
University Student, Personality, Mental Health, Y-G, MBTI, Beck Inventory, Trait, E-I, S-N, T-F, J-P, Anxiety, Desperation, Depression, Suicide Ideation
        本研究为了从不同的角度完整的对人格作了解,因此人格测量的工具除了运用特质论的赖氏(YG)人格量表之外,同时运用类型论的MBTI人格量表,又以Beck情绪量表评估大学生的心理健康状况,所得研究结果如下:特质人格测验;台湾地区大学生在赖氏人格量表十二个分量表在男女性别比较结果,显示有七个分量表达显著差异,由平均数分析,男生显著高于女生的分量表有活动性、攻击性、女生高于男生的分量表有客观性、协调性、变异性、自卑感、神经质。在内外向性、社会适应性及情绪稳定等三个因素分析结果,台湾地区男性显著比女性情绪稳定,女性显著比男性有较高的社会适应,而内外向性因素未达显著差异。类型人格测验;台湾地区大学生在MBTI人格量表的16类型分析结果,人口比例最高的是ENFP,次之INFP,再次之ISTJ,研究样本的人口比例最低的是INFJ,次低ESTP,再次低INTJ。在台湾地区、大陆和两者总数的比较分析,16类型人口分布比例均达显著差异水平,表示各项分布不均,而以人口分布比例的排序而言,台湾地区、大陆与美国的前三排序及后三排序或其它项目的排序比较,结果差异不大,尤其是大陆与美国更接近些,台湾地区与大陆仍然看到较多差距,而两岸总数与美国比较差距相对小。因此,以MBTI作为中国人的测量工具而言,是具一定的效度的。台湾大学生的MBTI的四维度人口分布比例,内向(I)的人口比例显著高于外向(E),思维(T)人口比例显著高于情感(F)的比例,但感觉一直觉(S-N)、判断-感知(J-P)的人口比例并未显著悬殊,在性别的比较上,E-I、T-F的两个维度达显著的差异。贝克氏(Beck)情绪量表包括焦虑情绪量表(BAI)、忧郁情绪量表(BDI)、自杀量表(BSS)以及三个情绪分量表总分作为评估心理健康工具,由平均数得分显示,焦虑的平均数是9.05属于轻微程度(8-15分)、忧郁的平均数是10.66属于正常范围(0-13分),自杀平均数是2.22,分数极低,虽然如此,因为标准差的数值很高,所以必须注意研究样本中仍有情绪困扰者存在。性别的分析,结果显示女生的忧郁以及总分显著比男生高,而焦虑、自杀未达显著差异,焦虑及自杀在性别比较上虽未达显著差异,然平均数女生均高于男生。综合特质论及类型论作为预测情绪的复回归分析,以赖氏及基本属性作为预测变项,预测Beck情绪量表,结果显示E类型是最具预测指标,C类型及E类型对焦虑、忧郁、自杀及总得分达显著预测水平,此结果在大陆以及总样本数的分析结果亦同,除此,D类型对绝望具有显著预测水平。基本属性的预测中,性别属性对绝望、忧郁及总分具显著预测水平。台湾地区研究分析,以MBTI及基本属性作为预测变项,预测Beck情绪量表,结果显示E-I(外向-内向)最具预测指标,E-I维度对焦虑、忧郁、自杀及总得分,均具显著预测水平,此结果在台湾地区、大陆及总样本数的分析亦同。J-P(判断-感知)对台湾地区及总样本数的忧郁及自杀均具显著预测水平,性别对忧郁具显著预测水平,学系对自杀得分具显著预测水平。MBTI的E-I(外向-内向)是具高度预测水平与赖氏人格的内外向性结果前后呼应。以上从MBTI的预测结果,可以再度说明人类对事情的认知判断与情绪的关系,鉴于此对于Beck的认知行为治疗如何大受肯定,提出更有力的验证。总此,以人格的特质及类型研究结果,的确得到一些契合的结果,相异之处亦得到相当程度的相互补充。在两岸逐渐开放交流和解的当今,以此研究结果足以作为两岸对年轻人的相互了解。除此,就情绪研究结果亦当可初步提供海峡两岸的教育界及心理学界作为教育方针考虑及个案治疗专业的准备。
    To make an integrated understanding about the current college students’ personality and mental health, Y-G test as the personality instrument based on the trait theory of personality and MBTI test as the personality instrument based on the type theory of personality were used in this present research, as well as Beck Inventory (BI) was used to assess their mental health. And the results were as follows:a) There were significant differences between the college student by gender from Taiwan (China) on the seven subscales scores of the total twelve subscales ones of Y-G test; male students higher than female students are G (general activity) and Ag (Aggressiveness), while the female students higher than male students are O (Objectivity) ,Co (Cooperativeness), C (Cyclic tendency), I (Inferiority Feeling), N (Nervousness). The result of three factors of Y-G test with Internal-External and Social adjustment and Stable of emotion by gender, there were two significant deferent factors with Social Adjustment (man<female) and Stable of Emotion (man>female),and no significant difference with Internal-External.b) According to the MBTI test, the proportion of Type ENFP among college students from Taiwan (China) was biggest, followed by Type INFP and Type ISTJ. When arranged in ascending order, the sequence becomes Type INFJ, Type ESTP and Type INFJ. Furthermore, the proportion of each MBTI type between the college students from Taiwan (China), Mainland China and both sides of the Taiwan Strait was significantly different, but there were no significant differences between the above mentioned three types which have the biggest proportion, the above mentioned three types which have the smallest proportion and the other types of MBTI among college students from Taiwan (China), Mainland China, and America. Especially, the proportion was much similar between college students from Mainland China and America, and much different between college students from Taiwan (China) and Mainland China. And the proportion was little different between college students from both sides of the Taiwan Strait and America. So, MBTI is a valid instrument for evaluating Chinese personality. In addition, the proportion of Introversion among college students from Taiwan (China) was significantly big than that of Extraversion, and the proportion of Think was significantly big than that of Feeling, while there were no significant differences between the proportion of S-I (Sensation/Intuition) and J-P (Judgment/Perception). What is more is that there were significant differences between the proportion of E-I (Extraversion/ Introversion) and T-F (Think/ Feeling) between the college male students and female students from Taiwan (China).c) The results of Beck Inventory, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) showed that college students from Taiwan (China) were slight anxiety (mean=9.05), moderate depression (mean=10.66) and extremely low suicide ideation (mean= 2.22). Because the standard deviations were high, there should be emotional puzzled in the subjects. In addition, the result of BAI and BSS showed no significant deferent by gender though, but female students were higher than male students from Taiwan (China).d) To predict the emotion by a set of personality variables, multiple regression analysis was conducted. The results showed that Type E of Y-G was the best predictor, and Type C of Y-G and TYPE E of Y-G can predict BAI, BDI, BSS and BI, which also appeared in the students sample of Mainland China and of both sides of the Taiwan Strait. And Type D can predict BHS available. In addition, gender can predictor BHS、BDI and BI.In highly agreement with that Type E of Y-G was the best predictor, the results of multiple regression analysis also showed that Type E-I of MBTI is the best indicator and can predict BAI, BDI, BSS and BI, which also appeared in the students sample of Mainland China and of both sides of the Taiwan Strait. Moreover, Type J-P can predict BDI and BSS of the students sample of Taiwan (China) and of both sides of the Taiwan Strait. In addition, gender can predictor BDI and major can predictor BSS. Gender can predict BDI available. The above results of regression analysis of MBTI offered a strong massage about cognition and emotion correlation, and thus provided strong proofs for why Beck’s cognition therapy was so popular.In conclusion, based on the trait theory and the type theory of personality, this research found some compatible results, and the differences among results are well complemented by each other. With Mainland China and Taiwan(China) gradually opening up, this study would promote understanding about youth of the mainland and Taiwan (China), and give advises for making educational rules and primary preparations for psychotherapy for the fields of education and psychology across-Straits.
        

台湾地区大学生人格与心理健康现况研究

摘要6-8
Abstract8-9
第一章 问题提出及研究设想19-26
    前言19-20
    第一节 研究假设20-21
    第二节 研究取样21-22
    第三节 研究工具22-26
        一 MBTI人格类型量表22
        二 Y-G人格量表(赖氏人格量表)22-24
        三 贝克氏情绪量表24-26
第二章 文献探讨26-66
    第一节 人格理论综论26
    第二节 人格单元26-34
        一 人格特质单元26-28
        二 人格认知单元28-31
        三 人格的动机单元31-34
    第三节 人格的塑造34-35
        一 共同经验对人个的塑造影响34-35
        二 独特经验对人格塑造的影响35
    第四节 人格衡鉴的方法35-38
        一 人格特质论的衡鉴35-36
        二 心理分析论的人格衡鉴36-37
        三 学习理论的人格衡鉴方法37-38
        四 人本论的人格衡鉴38
    第五节 MBTI人格衡鉴测验及相关研究38-53
        一 荣格的人格观点39-44
        二 MBTI量表与理论介绍44-51
        三 MBTI的应用与相关研究51-53
    第六节 人格与情绪相关研究53-66
        一 YG相关研究56-58
        二 MBTI相关研究58-60
        三 Beck相关研究60
        四 其它相关的人格与情绪研究60-66
第三章 台湾地区大学生人格及心理健康研究结果分析66-108
    第一节 台湾地区赖氏人格特质研究结果66-75
        一、赖氏人格大学生基本资料分析66-68
        二、性别在赖氏人格量表的研究结果68-70
        三、学系在赖氏人格量表三个因素的研究结果70-71
        四、学系及性别在赖氏人格量表三个因素双因子方差分析71-72
        五、赖氏人格量表五个分类的差异检定72-75
    第二节 台湾地区MBTI人格类型研究结果75-84
        一 基本资料分析75-77
        二 MBTI 16种人格类型统计分析77-81
        三 MBTI四个维度之变异分析81-84
    第三节 台湾地区贝克氏情绪量表研究结果84-89
        一 基本资料分析84-86
        二 贝克氏情绪量表描述性统计86
        三 性别在贝克氏焦虑量表的差异检验86-87
        四 学系在贝克氏情绪量表的变异分析87-88
        五 学系和性别在贝克氏情绪量表双因子方差分析88-89
    第四节 台湾地区贝克氏情绪量表的复回归分析89-98
        一 赖氏人格量表对贝克氏情绪量表总分的预测性89-94
        二 MBTI量表对贝克氏情绪量表总分的预测性94-98
    第五节 台湾地区大学生人格表现研究结果综合分析98-108
        一 赖氏人格量结果综合分析98-100
        二 MBTI人格量结果综合分析100-102
        三 贝克氏情绪量表结果综合分析102-103
        四 贝克氏情绪量表的复回归分析103-108
第四章 大陆大学生的相关研究108-135
    第一节 Y-G人格测验研究结果108-112
        一 基本资料分析109-110
        二 性别在Y-G人格量表的研究结果110-111
        三 时间变量在Y-G人格量表的改变影响111-112
    第二节 MBTI人格测验研究结果112-122
        一 基本资料分析113-114
        二 MBTI 16种人格类型统计分析114-119
        三 MBTI四个维度之变异分析119-122
    第三节 贝克氏情绪量表测验研究结果122-125
        一 基本资料分析122-123
        二 贝克氏情绪量表描述性统计123-124
        三 性别在贝克氏焦虑量表的差异检验124
        四 学系在贝克氏情绪量表的变异分析124-125
    第四节 贝克氏情绪量表的复回归分析125-129
        一 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对贝克氏情绪量表总分的预测性126
        二 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对贝克氏焦虑的预测性126-127
        三 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对贝克氏忧郁的预测性127-128
        四 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对贝克氏情绪量表自杀的预测性128-129
    第五节 相关研究结果综合分析129-135
        一 Y-G人格量表结果综合分析129
        二 MBTI人格量表结果综合分析129-132
        三 贝克氏情绪量表结果综合分析132-133
        四 贝克氏情绪量表的复回归分析133-135
第五章 海峡两岸大学生人格及心理健康综合分析135-169
    第一节 海峡两岸大学生MBTI人格类型研究结果分析135-147
        一 基本资料分析135-137
        二 大学生的MBTI 16种人格类型统计分析137-143
        三 MBTI四个维度之变异分析143-147
    第二节 海峡两岸贝克氏情绪量(Beck)表研究结果147-160
        一、大学生基本资料分析147-150
        二、海峡两岸大学生在贝克氏情绪量表差异检验150-154
        三、贝克氏量表的双因子方差分析154-160
    第三节 贝克氏情绪量表的复回归分析160-164
        一 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对贝克氏情绪量表总分的预测性160-161
        二 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对焦虑的预测性161-162
        三 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对忧郁的预测性162-163
        四 基本属性变项与MBTI量表对自杀的预测性163-164
    第四节 海峡两岸研究结果综合分析164-169
        一、MBTI结果综合分析164-166
        二、贝克氏情绪量表结果综合分析166-167
        三、贝克氏情绪量表的复回归分析167-169
第六章 总结论与总讨论169-187
    第一节 台湾大学生人格表现研究总结169-177
        一、特质人格研究在台湾地区大学生现况综论169-170
        二、类型人格研究在台湾地区大学生现况综论170-172
        三、海峡两岸大学生在MBTI人格现况综论172-176
        四、总结与总讨论176-177
    第二节 台湾地区大学生情绪现况研究总结177-181
        一、台湾地区大学生在贝克氏情绪现况综论177-178
        二、海峡两岸大学生在贝克氏情绪现况综论178-180
        三、总结与讨论180-181
    第三节 人格对情绪的预测研究总结181-184
        一、台湾地区大学生之人格对情绪预测结果综论181-182
        二、大陆大学生之类型(MBTI)人格对情绪预测结果综论182
        三、海峡两岸大学生之MBTI人格对情绪预测结果综论182-184
        四、总结与讨论184
    第四节 台湾地区大学生人格与心理健康现况研究总结184-186
    第五节 启示与建议186-187
参考文献187-197
附录197-213
致谢213


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