我为什么不如他

—— 学生自卑心理研究
Why am I Inferior to Him

作者: 专业:基础心理学 导师:孔克勤 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
学生 自卑感 内隐自卑 社会比较 自卑感量表 内隐自卑测量方法 自卑心理结构

Keywords
students, inferiority feelings, implicit inferiority, social comparison, the inferiority feelings questionnaire, implicit inferiority measures, inferiority structure, self-esteem
        作为人类普遍存在且重要的情感体验,自卑在中国学生中也是普遍存在的,并且是影响学生成就和心理健康的重要因素。然而,心理学工作者对于自卑开展的深入研究却不多。积极开展学生的自卑心理研究,不仅可以充实自我的心理学研究、丰富人格心理学和健康心理学的相关理论,还能为心理健康教育、心理咨询、心理治疗工作提供理论指导,具有重要的理论意义和实践指导价值。本研究从中国学生自卑心理的现状出发,以“学生的自卑心理”作为选题,认为自卑心理包括可以意识到的自卑感和无法内省的内隐自卑两部分,把自卑感定义为个体在与他人进行比较时,意识到自己不如他人而视之为缺点并为之苦恼的情感体验,而内隐自卑则是自卑感内化的产物,是无法通过内省意识到的自卑感;特别强调自卑感和内隐自卑是个体与他人进行社会比较的结果,认为应该从社会比较的角度对自卑感和内隐自卑进行测量。本研究在社会比较的视野下,首先通过编制大学生、中学生、小学生自卑感量表探讨学生自卑感的结构,分析大学生、中学生、小学生自卑感的现况,并探查学生自卑感的具体内容是否存在学龄阶段间的群体差异和学龄阶段内的个体差异。其次,采用IAT、EB、CFII方法探索大学生、中学生和小学生是否存在内隐自卑。然后,在此基础上,探讨学生自卑心理的结构及特点并探索自卑与自尊的关系。首先,本研究对大、中、小学生的自卑感结构进行研究的结果表明:小学生自卑感主要包括学业自卑感、生活自卑感、性格自卑感三个因素,中学生自卑感在小学生自卑感的基础上形成,包括生活自卑感、社交自卑感、学业自卑感、性格自卑感四个因素,大学生自卑感在中学生自卑感的基础上形成,包括生活自卑感、社交自卑感、学业自卑感三个因素。因此,生活自卑感、学业自卑感、社交(性格)自卑感是学生自卑感体验的重要内容。但是,不同学龄阶段学生的生活自卑感、学业自卑感、社交(性格)自卑感又有不同的所指。性格自卑感在学生自卑感的形成与发展中起着桥梁与中介的作用,社交自卑感是学生性格自卑感发展的必然结果。本研究还尝试制定了大、中、小学生自卑感探索性常模,并对大、中、小学生的自卑感现况进行了分析,发现性别、生源、是否独生子女、学科门类、年级等人口统计学变量影响大、中、小学生的自卑感体验。然后,本研究基于社会比较的视角,利用IAT、EB、CFII三种范式对大、中、醒??皇缘哪谝?员敖?辛颂教帧F渲?IAT和EB范式中所用的测验材料均是在相应地自编大、中、小学生自卑感量表的项目基础之上改编而成的。在对大、中、小学生被试进行内隐自卑的IAT测验时,大学生被试又包括三个实验组,每组接受的内隐自卑的IAT测验的材料并不完全相同;中、小学生被试各属于一个实验组,每组接受的内隐自卑的IAT测验的材料分别完全相同。在对大、中、小学生被试进行内隐自卑的EB和CFII测验时,大、中、小学生被试各属于一个实验组,每组接受的测验材料分别完全相同。总的看来,各实验组都表现出显著的内隐自卑效应。在上述研究的基础上,本研究分别根据内隐自卑测验和自卑感测验的结果,将自卑心理结构划分为高内隐自卑/高自卑感、高内隐自卑/低自卑感、低内隐自卑/高自卑感、低内隐自卑/低自卑感四种类型,探讨了学生自卑心理结构的特点。结果发现:不同自卑结构的人格差异主要表现在YG的情绪性因素上;高内隐自卑/高自卑感类型被试比低内隐自卑/低自卑感类型被试的心理健康水平差;自卑感而非内隐自卑与心理健康的关系更密切。最后,本研究从实证的角度探索了大、中、小学生被试自卑与自尊的关系。结果发现:无论是对从学龄阶段间的角度进行取样的大学生、中学生、小学生被试,还是对从学龄阶段内角度进行取样的三个大学生组的被试的测量结果都表明内隐自卑、内隐自尊、自卑感和外显自尊分别是相对独立的、不同的结构。另外,还发现低外显自尊者不全属于高自卑感类型,高自卑感类型者不全是低外显自尊的,因此认为不宜笼统地讲“低自尊即自卑”。
    Inferiority is one kind of human feelings that pervades all aspects of our lives, including Chinese students’ lives, and is considered as the main factor to their achievements and mental health. Unfortunately, either western psychologists or Chinese psychologists haven’t done in-depth studies on inferiority, which is not commensurate with the importance of inferiority. In our opinion, it is urgent to carry out researches on inferiority, which will not only enrich the studies on self, personality psychology and health psychology, but also give guidance to mental health education, counseling, psychotherapy.Based on the fact of Chinese students’ inferiority, the present study mainly explored students’ inferiority and proposed a general distinction between the feeling of inferiority and the implicit inferiority with the former was defined as the perceived feelings of inferiority to others and thus viewed as one’s shortcomings as the possible results of Social Comparison with others while the latter was defined as an implicit construct that was the introspectively unidentified trace of past inferiority feelings. So, the instrument to measure inferiority should be developed based on Social Comparison Theory.According to this distinction, the present study first explored a set of questionnaires to measure the structures of inferiority feelings and then tried to demonstrate the existence of the implicit inferiority from the view of Social Comparison Theory. Next, based on this distinction, studies on the inferiority structure and the relationships between inferiority and self-esteem were carried out.The first study developed a set of questionnaires to measure primary school students, middle school students and college students respectively the structures of inferiority feelings, and revealed that life inferiority feelings, academic inferiority feelings and social (personality) inferiority feelings were the most important dimensions of students’ inferiority feelings structures while the constitutions of each dimension among primary school students, middle school students and college students were respectively different. Furthermore, personality inferiority feelings played a role of media during the shape and development of students’ inferiority feelings, and resulted in the development of students’ social inferiority feelings. In addition, a preliminary norm was supplied to assess the level of students’ inferiority feelings. And such demographic factors as gender, origin, singleton, major, grade produced an effect on students’ inferiority feelings.Then, the existence of the students’ implicit inferiority was demonstrated by conducting IAT, EB and CFII measures which seemed to be the appropriate and sound measurements of implicit inferiority. Especially, the materials used in IAT and EB measures were derived from the items of the inferiority feelings questionnaires, and in IAT measure the college student subjects were divided into three groups with each group conducted with different materials.Next, based on the former studies on inferiority feelings and implicit inferiority, inferiority structure was discussed and divided into four types, namely Type High Implicit Inferiority /High Inferiority Feelings, Type High Implicit Inferiority/Low Inferiority Feelings, Type Low Implicit Inferiority/ High Inferiority Feelings, Type Low Implicit Inferiority/ Low Inferiority Feelings. As the results showed, about 1/3 to 1/2 of the student sample were high implicit inferiority, while 50% to 60% of which were high inferiority feelings. And personality differences among subjects with different inferiority structure were showed on the feeling dimension of YG measure. In addition, when the level of implicit inferiority is fixed, those with high social inferiority feelings are inferior to those with low social inferiority feelings in two dimensions of interpersonal competence in peer relationships, i.e. asserting displeasure with others’ actions and managing interpersonal conflicts. Results also showed that mental health is not so much due to implicit inferiority as to inferiority feelings.Last but not least, based on the former studies on inferiority feelings and implicit inferiority, the relationship between inferiority and self-esteem was discussed. The results showed that implicit inferiority, inferiority feelings, implicit self-esteem and explicit self-esteem are the very different structure with proper convergence validity from each other. In addition, the results revealed that those with low explicit self-esteem are not necessarily with high inferiority feelings, and vice versa. So, it was not proper to talk "low explicit self-esteem means high inferiority feelings" in generalities.
        

我为什么不如他

论文摘要6-8
ABSTRACT8-9
目录10-15
第1章 问题的提出15-22
第2章 国内,外自卑研究综述22-46
    2.1 西方心理学对自卑的研究22-30
        2.1.1 自卑感的概念及其测量23-25
        2.1.2 自卑情绪及其测量25-26
        2.1.3 自卑的原因及其测量26-27
        2.1.4 自卑的后果及其测量27-30
    2.2 我国心理学对自卑的研究30-39
        2.2.1 自卑感理论探讨31-35
        2.2.2 自卑感实证研究35-39
    2.3 对既有研究的思考39-46
        2.3.1 自卑测量工具的问题40-41
        2.3.2 自卑心理结构的问题41
        2.3.3 自卑特征的问题41-46
第3章 本研究的基本观点、研究思路、目的和意义46-58
    3.1 本研究的基本观点46-54
        3.1.1 从社会比较的视角界定自卑47-49
        3.1.2 自卑和自尊既有联系又有区别49-53
        3.1.3 从内稳和外显的角度区分自卑53-54
    3.2 本研究的主要思路54-55
    3.3 本研究的目的和意义55-58
第4章 自卑感量表编制58-83
    4.1 目的58
    4.2 学生自卑感量表的编制方法58-75
        4.2.1 开放式调查58-59
        4.2.2 访谈59-60
        4.2.3 初测问卷的编制60-61
        4.2.4 正式施测61-75
    4.3 学生自卑感量表的原始分的计算和常模的确立75-78
        4.3.1 学生自卑感量表的原始分的计算75-77
        4.3.2 学生自卑感量表因素分和总分常模77-78
    4.4 讨论78-83
        4.4.1 学生自卑感及其测量78-79
        4.4.2 学生自卑感量表的因素分析79-80
        4.4.3 学生自卑感量表计分方法和结果分析80-83
第5章 学生自卑感现况研究83-97
    5.1 目的83
    5.2 对象83
    5.3 材料83
    5.4 结果83-88
        5.4.1 在因素分和总分上的差异83-84
        5.4.2 在性别上的差异84-85
        5.4.3 在生源上的差异85-86
        5.4.4 在独生子女上的差异86-87
        5.4.5 在学科门类上的差异87
        5.4.6 在年级上的差异87-88
    5.5 讨论88-95
    5.6 小结95-97
第6章 内隐自卑研究97-114
    6.1 引言97-99
    6.2 内隐自卑的IAT研究99-104
        6.2.1 研究方法99-101
        6.2.2 结果101-102
        6.2.3 讨论102-104
    6.3 内隐自卑的EB研究104-108
        6.3.1 研究方法104-106
        6.3.2 结果106
        6.3.3 讨论106-108
    6.4 内隐自卑的CFII研究108-110
        6.4.1 研究方法108-109
        6.4.2 结果109
        6.4.3 讨论109-110
    6.5 综合讨论110-112
    6.6 小结112-114
第7章 自卑心理的结构研究114-133
    7.1 目的114
    7.2 材料114-115
        7.2.1 YG性格测验114-115
        7.2.2 人际关系能力问卷(ICQ)115
        7.2.3 一般心理健康问卷(GHQ-12)115
    7.3 方法115-116
    7.4 被试116
    7.5 结果116-128
        7.5.1 不同自卑结构的分类结果116-117
        7.5.2 不同自卑结构的人格特点117-121
        7.5.3 不同自卑结构的人际关系能力特点121-124
        7.5.4 不同自卑结构的心理健康特点124-125
        7.5.5 几个典型被试的自卑结构及其人格、人际关系能力、心理健康的特点125-128
    7.6 讨论128-133
        7.6.1 自卑结构的划分128-129
        7.6.2 自卑结构的特点129-133
第8章 汇聚与区分:自卑与自尊关系的探索性研究133-140
    8.1 引言133
    8.2 对象133
    8.3 材料133-134
        8.3.1 内隐自尊的IAT实验材料133
        8.3.2 Rosenberg(1965)自尊量表133-134
    8.4 方法和结果134-136
    8.5 讨论136-140
第9章 总讨论与总结论140-147
    9.1 关于研究的主要思路140
    9.2 关于自卑感的群体间差异和个体内差异140-141
    9.3 关于内隐自卑的跨样本一致性研究和多方法汇聚测量141-142
    9.4 关于自卑与自尊的关系142-143
    9.5 本研究的创新之处143
    9.6 本研究的局限及不足之处143-145
    9.7 本研究的主要结论145-147
附录147-154
    附录Ⅰ 自卑感量表147-148
        大学生自卑感量表147
        中学生自卑感量表147-148
        小学生自卑感量表148
    附录Ⅱ 内隐自卑IAT测验材料148-150
        大学生组Ⅰ148-149
        大学生组Ⅱ149
        大学生组Ⅲ149
        中学生组149-150
        小学生组150
    附录Ⅲ 内隐自卑EB测验材料150-151
        大学生组Ⅲ150
        中学生组150-151
        小学生组151
    附录Ⅳ 内隐自卑CFII测验材料151
    附录Ⅴ YG性格测验151-152
        大、中学生组151-152
        小学生组152
    附录Ⅵ 人际关系能力问卷(ICQ)152
    附录Ⅶ 一般心理健康问卷(GHQ-12)152
    附录Ⅷ 外显自尊问卷152-154
参考文献154-157
    中文部分154-155
    英文部分155-157
后记157


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