大学生网络成瘾的心理机制研究

The Psychological Mechanism of College Students’ Internet Addition

作者: 专业:科学技术哲学 导师:葛鲁嘉 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
大学生 网络成瘾 人格特征 自控 延迟折扣

Keywords
college students, internet addiction disorder, personality trait, self-control, delay discout
        对成瘾理论及网络成瘾概念的提出、诊断与分类、理论模型和实证研究的最新发展等几个方面进行系统的回顾,采用整合研究的思路,编制了大学生网络使用自控量表(ISCS),应用问卷调查、延迟折扣实验技术探讨大学生网络成瘾行为的内在机制。目的在于研究大学生网络成瘾者个性心理特征与网络成瘾行为、心理健康、冲动性控制之间的关系,有助于大学生有效使用网络,提高其自我控制的能力。经过实证分析和实验获得以下主要结论:1.大学生网络成瘾者在某些人口统计学因素上呈现显著差异。2.大学生网络成瘾与非成瘾者在人格特质层面存在差异。3.网络成瘾大学生的心理健康水平低于非成瘾大学生。4.人格、自我控制、感觉寻求通过影响网络成瘾,进而影响心理健康水平。5.在延迟折扣实验中,网络成瘾大学生更加倾向于做出冲动性选择
    The internet has been developed and becomes a tool of facilitating communication and information from the original means of academic research. It changed the living styles profoundly, accelerated the development of social, economic, political and culture during the passed decades.Nowadays, internet has been a necessary part of many people’s daily life. Some trends show that the number of net-citizen students is increasing continually. It is helpful for the development of economic and culture under the right use of internet. However, excessive and improper use of internet influenced the physical and mental health, destroyed the real interpersonal relations and induced all kinds of problems such as family, study and work etc.Some research materials show that the internet addiction disorders reached 5-10% among the college students in China. Internet addiction is a control-losing phenomenon for the internet behavior under the effect of non-addictive materials. And the main behavior is obvious hurt of social and psychological function because of the excessive and improper use of internet.The research theme of“psychological exploration of college-student internet addiction”is focused and it has important theoretical and practical values. The college students are tested and several research methods are adopted such as literature survey, questionnaire, interview and experimentation etc. By summarizing the results of theoretical and demonstrative research at home and abroad, beginning with the rules and characteristics of internet addiction about college students, considering the relations among psychological and social influential factors(personality, sensation seeking and self control) of addiction, the psychological and social mechanism which influences the internet addiction about college students is discussed in depth. This research consists of four parts. The first part is introduction. It includes the presentation of issues, construction of investigation and significance of research.College students are a special social colony. They are locating a special stage of their own lives which has special social environments and criterions. And they are also the productive forces of the nation in future. Their developments relate the developmental direction of the society. As far as the college students who are using the internet are concerned, they are a biggish colony among the internet users in China and the problems about their physical and mental health are being concerned.Compared with middle or primary school students college students have a clear and complete self-awareness. They have the abilities to control their own behaviors. While some students still indulge in internet though they know the internet addiction threatened the school work, physical and mental health. They have the lack of self-control abilities. Their personal characters, impulsion-control levels and symptoms of internet addition should be investigated necessarily and deeply. The negative affects on the individual mentalities should be reduced in so far as possible. The internet can be a helpful medium for enhancing individual efficiency and enriching individual spiritual life.The second part is literature overview. It summarized the research results of addictive mechanism, theoretical research, demonstrative research of internet addiction etc.The connotation of addiction is expatiated firstly. It involves the explanation of addiction from some aspects such as the theory of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, social learning, cognition psychology, personality level, and biology. The concept of behavior addition is introduced. The concept, diagnosis, classification and theory of internet addiction are reviewed.Some researchers presented theoretical models based on the psychology. With respect to the explanation of internet addiction some of them are more representative such as Young’s“ACE Model”, Davis’s“Cognition-behavior Model”and Grohol’s“Stage Model”. In addition there are still other models such as Morris and Ogan’s“Need Satisfaction”model,“society-psychology -physiology integrated model”,“existentialism-living in the present case”, Kraut’s“Rich people are richer”and“Intense mechanism theory”etc.Each theory explained the causes and influencing factors of internet addiction from different aspects. The relationship between occurrence of internet reliance and addictive character, individual peculiarity of internet users, extrinsic environment is discussed separately. The influential factors of internet addiction, the effects of individual life and nerve-biology transformation of internet addiction are analyzed in demonstrative research.The third part is about the demonstrative investigation of internet addiction. This part includes six main researches.Research one starts from the self-control theory. The internet addiction self-control (ISCS) is made combined with concrete characteristics about college students’internet reliance. This scale has a good reliability and a validity after testing. And it has the measuring significance of psychology. It can be a testing tool for the following research.Research two is about the elementary exploration and research of demographic and social characteristics for the internet addiction. The rate of internet addiction is 6.56% of the investigating population. Sex relates to the internet addiction about the incidence rate of internet addiction dramatically. Boys are prone to addiction more than girls. It shows that the boys tend toward internet addiction. From the degree of addiction the boys’is higher than girls’. It is close to the level of significance, but it never reaches that level. The numbers of addictive students from single-parent family are more. The educational attainments of their parents can also influence the students’addiction. The nation ,single or not, annual income of a family, line composition in family, father’s working property, mother’s working property do not influent the detectable rate of internet addiction obviously.Research three analyzes the character of personality concerning college-student internet addiction. The score of EPQ-P and EPQ-N of internet addiction group is higher than that of non-addiction group remarkably. The score of conceal dimensionality for the internet addiction group is higher than that of non-addiction group obviously. The score of EPQ-E has no significant difference between the internet addiction group and non-addiction group. The score of anti-enforcement, self discipline and anti-emotionality for the self controlling concerning the internet addiction group is lower than that of non-addiction group remarkably. The four personalities of EPQ-P, EPQ-E, EPQ-N, EPQ-L are all correlated to the internet addiction and reaches the level of significance. The characters of EPQ-E and EPQ-L are correlated to the internet addiction negatively.The excitement of sensation seeking and adventure seeking and the factor of Dis correlated to the internet addiction significantly. Self controlling and every factor correlated to the internet addiction significantly. The regression analysis shows that the Dis of sensation seeking and EPQ-N,EPQ-E, EPQ-P, anti-emotional, anti-enforcement and exciting adventure of sensation seeking have the predicting function to the internet addiction.Research four surveys the factors concerning the internet addiction and the influences of internet addiction towards the mental health of college students. IAD SCL-90 score are higher than no IAD in anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsiveness, sensitivity, sleeping disturbances, agoraphobia, somatisation and psychoticism. The factors of SCL-90 correlated to the internet addiction significantly. The regression analysis shows that EPQ-N, Dis, IAD, EPQ-E, anti-enforcement, anti-emotional have the predicting function to mental health.Research five synthesizes the model of internet addiction and mental health. Sex, grade, single parent EPQ-N, EPQ-P, EPQ-E, Dis, anti-enforcement, anti-emotional have inflation on mental health of college students through internet addiction.Research six explores impulsivity of internet addiction college students by economy delay discounting tasks to prevent internet addiction and offer reference and basis for improving measures. 93 college students are surveyed with the Questionnaire on IAD, BIS-11 and tested by delay discounting computer task. Internet addiction disorders prefer to do more impulsive choice in procedure. Internet addiction disorders’rates of delay are significantly higher than no internet addiction disorders .With the time delaying, internet addiction disorders rates of delay are much higher. IAD related closely to self-esteem and impulsivity.The forth part is the general conclusion. It includes three aspects.First,the practice of this research is summarized.The innovation and the limitation of this research is explored based on it. The assumption of the research.is presented at last.
        

大学生网络成瘾的心理机制研究

内容提要4-7
第一部分 导言7-9
第二部分 关于网络成瘾研究的综述9-55
    1 成瘾及其机制9-19
    2 行为成瘾19-20
    3 网络成瘾20-55
第三部分 关于网络成瘾的实证研究55-140
    研究一 大学生网络使用自我控制的问卷编制55-64
        1 引言55-58
        2 研究方法58-59
        3 研究结果59-63
        4 结论63-64
    研究二 大学生网络成瘾者的人口学、社会学特征调查64-80
        1 引言64
        2 研究方法64-65
        3 结果65-75
        4 讨论75-80
    研究三 网络成瘾大学生的人格特征80-97
        1 引言80-85
        2 研究方法85-87
        3 结果与分析87-91
        4 讨论91-97
    研究四 网络成瘾对心理健康的影响97-108
        1 引言97
        2 研究方法97-98
        3 结果与分析98-103
        4 讨论103-108
    研究五 网络成瘾-心理健康模型的综合构建108-113
        1 引言108
        2 构建模型108-109
        3 构建验证109-110
        4 讨论110-113
    研究六 基于延迟折扣任务的网络成瘾者冲动性的研究113-140
        1 引言113-119
        2 研究方法119-121
        3 结果与分析121-129
        4 讨论129-140
第四部分 总的讨论140-145
    1 总结论140-141
    2 本研究的实践性141-142
    3 本研究的主要创新之处142-143
    4 本研究的不足之处143-145
参考文献145-155
攻读博士学位期间的成果155-156
论文摘要156-161
ABSTRACT161-165
附录166-170
后记170


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