民国《论语》学研究

A Study on the Analects of Confucius in the Republic of China

作者: 专业:中国古代史 导师:庞朴 年度:2008 学位:博士 

关键词
民国 《论语》学 文献 《论语大义》 《论语集释》

Keywords
the Republic of China, the study on the Analects of Confucius, literature, LUN YUDA YI, LUN YU JI SHI
        作为一门有着悠久历史的经学分支,在传统社会向现代社会迅速转型、传统文化面临慧命赓续和现代转换的民国时期,承接清代学术而来的民国《论语》学,因为时代环境的缘由和学术文化的演进,在大批新旧学人的耕耘下,又有了自身的新发展,取得了许多新成绩。也暴露了一些新问题。尽管1905年科举制度废除,民国以后还废止了小学读经,整体上兵事不断、战火连连,但公私藏书机构还是收藏有不少《论语》类的珍本,而且坊间流通的《论语》文本也还很多。此间的文献著录,在分类方法上多承《明史·艺文志》将《论语》归入“四书”类中,其后编撰《续修四库全书总目提要》时受日本相关分类方法的影响,《学》《庸》《论》《孟》乃各居一属与“四书总义”类并列著录。内容来看,清代《论语》学作品的著录特多,若《清史稿·艺文志》、《续修四库全书总目提要》均是其例,惟有清一代文献特盛,兼之或成书仓促、或组织不力,漏载也还很多。而外,对辑佚类作品的重视和著录,成为此间著录内容上的另一个特点,是亦辑佚之学在清代达到顶点、收获极丰的应有的回应。版本方面,同整个社会技术和文化事业上的进步相关,此间《论语》类文献著录开始出现影印本、报刊本一类新本,且与清代以来丛书大行的文化史实相因应,著录丛书本极多。再从《学》《庸》《论》《孟》的著录数量来看,仍以《论语》类为最多,此当与前此四书传承中《论语》学特盛的文化背景有关;历史地来看,著录所及《论语》学作品,特别是清人著作,恰也构成了《论语》学在民国时期继续前行的厚重积淀和逻辑起点。同著录工作所反映的民国时期《论语》类文献的藏弆情况有关,这一时期的文献刊刻,新作而外,以清代著作的刻印数量为最多,其中刘宝楠《论语正义》最受推重,其次焦循的《论语通释》也刻印多次。清代以前作品的出版集中在如何晏《论语集解》、皇侃《论语义疏》、韩李《论语笔解》、朱熹《论语集注》等经典注本上面。新作刻印方面有两点需要特别提及,一是敦煌唐写本《论语郑氏注》残卷和写本《论语集解》残卷的影印出版,在此一时期的《论语》学界堪称一件盛事,给民国的《论语》学带来了新鲜气息,注入了新的活力;一是随着白话文运动的开展,白话《论语》读本颇为流行,仅张兆瑢、沈元起编译的《白话论语读本》自1928~1947的20年间就由广益书局先后出版了五次,另外民初白话文刚刚开始时江希张所著《四书白话解说》也是影响巨大、十分重要的本子。就出版单位来看,此间刊印《论语》类文献最多的要数商务印书馆和中华书局两大出版系统,两者刊印的《论语》类文献版种占民国时期总数的五分之三左右。而外,随着政策和社会环境的变动,文献刊刻随着时间的变化表现出明显的起伏,其中由于民族危机、尊孔读经以及新生活运动等因素的综合推动,以1930年代开初至抗日战争打响后的1938年一段出版最为兴盛。在晚清今文学疑经之风的启发和引导下,民国时期文献辨伪工作十分兴盛,流风所及自然也包括《论语》。《论语》虽非伪书,但中古以来人们颇怀疑其中不少文句非是原有而是窜入,某些篇章也有其问题,是即所谓《论语》辨伪。前代而言,辨伪工作,包括《论语》,至清人崔述达至一空前高度,民国时期的《论语》辨伪实即崔述工作基础上的进一步深入。具体而言,我们认为同民国古典研究的自然分野相关,此一时期的《论语》辨伪天然地划分为经学和史学两大阵营,经学阵营大体又包括古文学、今文学和宋学三系,史学派中,有同经学联系紧密但治学能持以史家态度者,若梁启超、钱穆、周予同,有典型的“古史辨”派学人,若钱玄同、顾颉刚、童书业、赵贞信,还有代表唯物史观派的杜任之等。同辨伪工作类似,民国时期的《论语》校勘工作事实上也是清人《论语》校勘工作基础上的继续,此由张国淦《论语异文表》在接承阮元、叶德辉《论语》校勘工作基础上的继续努力可以看出。当然,同上述相较,最能体现和反映此间《论语》学成就的还在大量《论语》类专著、特别是经典文本的编撰。简朝亮积十年之力撰成的《论语集注补正述疏》是此间古文学《论语》研究的代表性作品。该书在对《论语集注》进行文字训诂的同时,复考信证实、借为发挥,补朱说之未尽、正《集注》之舛讹,强调通《易》以知《论语》,主张以史证经、通经致用,自古文学立场出发强调沟通汉宋,即诸清朝以来汉宋学的发展来看,算得上经古文学《论语》研究的殿军之作。当然,有些地方也不免烦琐,遭人诟病。马一浮的《论语大义》可以视作民国时期心性义理学派《论语》研究的代表作品。一浮治学取精用宏、大而化之、淹贯儒释、主以义理;思想上以孔子为教主,立仁心为本体,将涵养作工夫,以释为术,以儒为学,以知能合一为方法,以六艺之学为判教。《论语大义》正是如上体系中的一环。其强调以儒家“六艺”来范围东西学术,质实而言仍是对作者心统性情、兼该理气的本体思想的呈现。作者以六艺论为架构对《论语》一书进行了新的解释,此在民国《论语》学史上独树一帜。该书援佛理以说《论语》,自出机杼,揉合理学和心学,借《论语》谈六艺,以六艺见本体。当然具体来看,一浮的学术思想及其文字著述方面也有一些这样那样的不足,比如说以仁为理、理代逻辑,比如说为证己说曲为判释,比如说圣人情结太重,比如说文字训解上的牵强,等等。程树德《论语集释》可以说是而今最受推重的民国时期的《论语》注本,作者能在身患重病、生活困顿的情况下坚持治学,不为贫病所折,其学问精神令人起敬。《论语集释》体例周密,资料宏富,能以一己之力让人望见整个两千余年《论语》学史的烂漫长景,更能于不少地方有其自家之发明,又能持以相对公允的态度评判注家得失,整体而言实属不易。其强调版本校勘、注本和注人考订,能容摄释道之学,方法上推重以经解经,复能以常情解经、生活解经。惟是圣人情结凝重,对朱子《论语集注》抵斥略过,有些地方还不免自相抵牾,稍显不美。不过,在经学研究厌弃门户、强调公允、推尚调和的文化背景下,《论语集释》算得上民国《论语》学此一方面的代表。赵纪彬所著《先秦儒家哲学批判》(建国后改称《论语新探》),是中国学术进入文化发展上的哲学时代后,在20世纪上半期运用马克思主义理论分析和解读《论语》的代表性作品之一。该书的最大特点即在能主动将唯物史观和辩证法思想同对传统儒家经典的研究结合起来,借以探讨春秋时代的社会性质问题,并由此向人们展示了马克思主义理论在《论语》研究上所具有的独特价值。具体而言,该书在某些问题的考证上确实取得了一定的成绩,比如其关于“君子”、“小人”问题的考证即有其一定的道理,而且在嗣后20世纪下半期的《论语》学史上影响极大。而外,作者所尊尚的具有明显时代气息的统计分析的《论语》研究进路,也很有价值,对后此的《论语》研究有一定影响。不过该书确也存在着理论运用不免机械、具体考证有欠谨严等方面的不足。总之,此一时期的《论语》学在儒门原典失位官学、传统经书角色转型的背景下发生,发展过程中面临着包括西学冲击、话语流变等等在内的种种挑战和机遇,内容来看对前朝的《论语》之学有明显的继承,更有时代性发展。这一期间,不仅出现了诸如《论语集注补正述疏》、《论语解注合编》、《论语集释》、《论语大义》、《论语疏证》等许多重要注本,更端启了包括系统考索、援手哲学(若《先秦儒家哲学批判》)以及与结合出土文献重新判研(若王国维《书〈论语郑氏注〉残卷后》)在内的嗣后《论语》研究的新趋向,在整个《论语》学史上有其承前启后、继往开来的重要地位。
    As an old-line branch of the Study on Confucian classics’ and logic continuity of the culture of Qing Dynasty,the study on the Analects of Confucius in the Republic of China made a lot progress while some deficiencies emerged.There conserve lots of rare editions of the literatures of the Analects of Confucius in both the public and private libraries,although,generally speaking that was an age of turbulence.While Qing Shi Gao Yi Wen Zhi compiled during the Republic of China followed the same traditional categorized method as Ming Shi Yi Wen Zhi and Si Ku Quan Shu Zong Mu since Qing Dynasty,the later Xu Xiu Si Ku Quan Shu Zong Mu divided the Four Books kind into five specific genera of"the Analects of Confucius"、"the Mencius"、"the Great Learning"、"the Mean of Doctrine" and "ZongYi",reflecting the new development in book’s classifying.Judging from sources of that time,it is found that this kind of classification should have been influenced by categorized methods of Japan’s academic circles.As a new sight,also because of the technological development,photocopy editions,editions on newspapers and periodicals appeared in both registering and printing of literatures on the Analects of Confucius.Historically speaking,works of the Qing Dynasty which had been registered in the catalogs this period also made an academic beginning of the study on the Analects of Confucius in the Republic of China.Like the circs of literature’s registering,more works of the Qing Dynasty were printed than other Dynasties,among which LUN YU ZHENG YI of Liu Baonan and LUN YU TONG SHI of Jiao Xun are their representatives.Beside the printing number of other works,such as LUN YU JI JIE of He Yan,LUN YU YI SHU of Huang Kan,LUN YU BI JIE of Han Yu and Li Ao,LUN YUN JI ZHU of Zhu Xi,is considerable too.The printing of manuscripts of the fragmentary LUN YUN ZHENG SHI ZHU and LUN YU JI JIE of Tang Dynasty is an important and impressing matter in the academic history of the Republic of China,which promoted the study on the Analects of Confucius of this period in a certain extent.Another point in the literature on the Analects of Confucius’ printing is the emergence of colloquialism editions which also had its great significance in the history of the study on the Analects of Confucius that time.BAI HUA LUN YU DU BEN of Zhang Zhaorong and Shen Yuanqi and SI SHU BAI HUA JIE SHUO of Jiang Xizhang published in the beginning of the Republic of China are most popular while the first printed 5 times in 20 years from 1928~1947.As a result of complex factors,the most prosperous time of printing of literature on the Analects of Confucius which began in 1930 ended in about 1938 while the Japanese army invaded China.The distinguishing between truth and falsehood of the Analects of Confucius in the Republic of China,a succession of the Qing Dynasty’s,had put its logic starting point on it both in content and methods,while this kind of work in Qing Dynasty had attained a surprising height.People’s emphasizing of Cui shu’s achievement in the Analects of Confucius and the mass existence of the phenomenon of distinguishing from different standpoint of Study on Confucian classics were its visible exhibition.Among the distinguishing in the Republic of China,both the remains of New Text Confucianism, Old Text Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism included,the activities of the Ancient history Conforming School best represented the new characteristic of this in that period, which was done by scholars such as Qian Xuantong,Gu Jiegang,Tong Shuye,Zhao Zhenxin,an which acted as an explanation of the Analects of Confucius transforming from Jing to Shi and Zi.Succeeding to the academic of Qing Dynasty could also be detected in the collating work this period especially that of Zhang Guogan in his LUN YU YI WEN BIAO which made new progress while taking Ruan Yuan and Ye Dehui’s works as main reference.Of course the self-confidence of the study on the Analects of Confucius of the Republic of China can only lied on the back of plenty of new,especially typical texts of scholars that age.Jian Chaoliang’s LUN YU JI ZHU BU ZHENG SHU SHU,which has taken him ten years time to accomplished,is the representative text of the study on the Analects of Confucius of Old Text Confucianism that age.It advocates amalgamation of studies on Confucian Classics in Han Dynasty and that in this style with the Neo-Confucianism from his stand of Old Text Confucianism.Beside letter explanation and textual research, Chaoliang also corrects some errors of Zhu Xi’s book.One should study YI JING and history of China to comprehend the Analects of Confucius better is the very opinion that Chaoliang emphasizes at full steam.In a word,we should look on this book as the last best work of the study on the Analects of Confucius in Old Text Confucianism,though there was still some shortcomings such as prolixity etc.Ma Yifu’s LUN YUDA YI is a typical work of Neo-Confucianism in the Republic of China which acts as a logic part of his unique theory that concretized the Confucian Xinxue and the Confucian Lixue.In Yifu’ opinion,the LIUYI of Confucian actually can include all kind of arts and sciences in both the East and the West.Than he re-explained the Analects of Confucius with this opinion in order to testify his unique theory and made it an idiographic text of this field in the Republic of China.Yifu is quite familiar with Buddhism which could also be seen in LUN YU DA YI.Impersonally speaking,Ma Yifu is really an infrequent big scholar in the whole 20 century of China,though there might also a few deficiencies in his works.As the most popular explaining work in the Republic of China,People can see the form will towards Chinese traditional culture,while the author kept on with his work of "talking out" the book in several years with the help of folks because of having severe illness on himself which made him can’t move both arms and legs during the period of Japanese’ invading our country.In the name of LUN YU JI SHI,Cheng Shude formed a precise mode of coordinating old works on the Analects of Confucius which has gained him much praise since then.And in the favor of the precise coordinating mode,he collected quite a lot of former annotations on the Analects of Confucius.He cared works’ edition very much while advocating explaining Confucian Classics with Confucian Classics,general knowledge and daily life,which are all quite valuable thoughts.Maybe we could took his book of LUN YU JI SHI as the very representative of the school of dealing the study on Confucian Classics in Han Dynasty and that of its style and the Neo-Confucianism equally though it criticizes Zhu Xi’s LUN YU JI ZHU a little bit too much. As the original edition of LUN YU XIN TAN,The Animadverting on philosophy of Confucianism before Qin Dynasty by Zhao Jibin is a typical work using Marxism in analyzing the Analects of Confucian when the culture of China entered the age of philosophy.The biggest characteristic of this book is just that it tried to bring the materialism and dialectic into the study on the Analects of Confucius on his own and show people the special function of it.Besides,we have to say actually there are some ill-considered places in his books though there were still some other valuable discoveries.In a word,the study on the Analects of Confucius in the Republic of China took place in a age when the Confucian Classics were no longer ideology texts,which made them have to adapt new social roles to face all kinds of challenges on its way such as the impacts of the West culture,lingual evolvement etc,and which on the same time were new chances of development too.And,as a matter of fact,the study on the Analects of Confucius in the Republic of China had really made much progress with the aid of West philosophy,new works discovery in Dun Huang,systematic analysis,which could be easily seen in the works of Wang Guowei and others.And another point we have to know is that the study on the Analects of Confucius this period is also a continuity of that of the Qing Dynasty,which had inherited several important traditions of the it and which can be discerned clearly in works such as LUN YU JI ZHU BU ZHENG SHU SHU,LUN YU JIE ZHU HE BIAN,LUN YU JI SHI,LUN YU DA YI,LUN YU SHU ZHENG,and The Animadverting on philosophy of Confucianism Before Qin Dynasty etc.Then,all these outstanding characteristics made it an important and special period on the history of the study on the Analects of Confucius between the People’s Republic of China and the Qing Dynasty.
        

民国《论语》学研究

中文摘要8-12
ABSTRACT12-15
导言16-21
    一、写作缘起16-17
    二、学术史回顾17-18
    三、相关界定18-19
    四、内容及创新19-21
上编: 文献清理21-93
    第一章 文献著录21-39
        第一节 学术与藏弆背景21-22
        第二节 著录情况简介22-39
    第二章 文献刊刻39-59
        第一节 民国时期《论语》文献刊刻表略39-51
        第二节 文献刊刻内容解读与特点浅说51-59
    第三章 文献辨伪59-86
        第一节 经学残余60-66
        第二节 史学阵地66-72
        第三节 学术与社会反思72-79
        第四节 遗憾与缺失79-86
    附录86-93
        一、民国时期丛书中所见四书文献统计简表86-89
        二、民国时期报刊所见《论语》类文章表列89-93
下编: 专书解读93-189
    第一章 《论语集注补正述疏》93-115
        第一节 作者及成书介绍94-96
        第二节 《论语集注补正述疏》的内容和特点96-112
            一、《论语》定位:六经之精、百氏之要96-97
            二、治学立场:自古文学沟通汉宋97-101
            三、治学特点101-105
            四、述疏《集注》105-109
            五、《论语》学观点109-112
        第三节 综合评述:经古文学《论语》研究的殿军之作112-115
    第二章 《论语大义》115-139
        第一节 作者及成书介绍115-119
        第二节 马一浮的思想及其“六艺”论119-128
            一、圆融心学与理学119-123
            二、佛学借鉴与“六艺”判教123-128
        第三节 《论语大义》内容概说128-135
            一、《论语大义》的创作缘起128-130
            二、《论语大义》的内容130-135
        第四节 综合评述:心性义理学派《论语》研究的杰作135-139
    第三章 《论语集释》139-165
        第一节 作者及成书介绍139-140
        第二节 《论语集释》的内容与体例140-144
        第三节 程著思想及特点144-157
            一、按语内容144-147
            二、撰述思想147-155
            三、解经方法155-157
        第四节 综合评述:《论语》研究抛却门户的切实努力157-165
    第四章 初版《论语新探》165-189
        第一节 作者及成书介绍165-168
        第二节 初版《论语新探》的内容及特点168-183
            一、学术背景:中国文化的哲学时代168-171
            二、主要内容及特点171-176
            三、赵著疏失条列176-183
        第三节 综合评述:马克思主义介入《论语》研究的初期尝试183-189
结语: 民国《论语》学综论189-204
    第一节 失位与转型189-192
    第二节 挑战和机遇192-197
    第三节 继承与发展197-204
参考文献204-217
致谢217-218
攻读博士学位期间发表的学术成果218-219
学位论文评阅及答辩情况表219


本文地址:

上一篇:哈贝马斯宗教哲学思想研究
下一篇:大学生网络成瘾的心理机制研究

分享到: 分享民国《论语》学研究到腾讯微博           收藏
发表网-民国《论语》学研究-在线咨询