汽车发动机电控水泵冷却系统的设计及试验研究

Design and Experimental Study on Electronic Pump of Coolingg System in Vehicle Engine

作者: 专业:农业机械化工程 导师:郭新民 年度:2010  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Engine, Electric Pump, Cooling System, Intelligent Control
        在汽车发动机传统冷却系统中,由于水泵和风扇的转速受发动机转速限制,不能根据发动机工况自动调节。当发动机冷启动后,水泵和风扇的工作,将气缸周围的热量迅速带走,使发动机预热时间延长;当发动机由高温大负荷突减为怠速时,水泵和风扇的转速降低,多余的热量无法散掉,导致发动机过热。这些不良现象既降低了发动机的有效功率,又增加了燃油的消耗。为了解决上述问题,进行了电控水泵冷却系统的研究。本课题是山东省教育厅科研项目《农业机械散热能力精确控制节能技术研究》的一部分。本冷却系统采用了电水泵和电风扇,两者都独立于发动机控制,电风扇的独立控制已有相关研究,但对电水泵的独立控制,经科技查新机构检索还未有相关报道。在本冷却系统中,单片机可根据水温信号通过水温控制程序输出PWM控制信号实现对电水泵和电风扇的调速。该系统克服了传统冷却系统的各种弊端,可根据发动机的散热要求自动调节散热能力。课题研究内容主要包括:冷却系统的整体设计、控制系统硬件设计及选型、控制系统软件设计和控制系统试验。控制系统的硬件设计主要有接口电路设计,软件采用模块化结构进行设计,主要有主控制模块、中断处理模块、滤波模块、温度采样模块、报警模块等。经山东省农业机械产品质量监督检验站检验证明:电控水泵冷却系统不仅解决了汽车发动机预热缓慢和过热等问题,而且还具有安装灵活、节省燃油、降低噪声、体积小、功率低等优点,符合现代发动机冷却系统的发展趋势。将该冷却系统汽车发动机中推广运用,将会获得较大的经济、社会效益。
    Both pump and fan are driven by engine in conventional cooling system, The rotation speeds of them are restricted to the speed of crankshaft. Water pump and fan revolve when cold-starting of engine, the heat of cylinder block is drawn off by circulating water and emits into the air. Therefore, warming time is prolonged; while the engine load changing suddenly from large to idle, the engine overheats due to the excess heat that is not drawn off in time with the the lower speed of pump and fan. Effective power of engine is also wasted by the work of pump and fuel consumption increased.To solve the problem of the over-heating and slow warm-up in the transportation of automobiles, a cooling system that contains electronic pump is designed.The issue is part of Provincial Education Department’s research project which is precise control of heat capacity in agricultural machinery. The cooling system contains electric pump and fan which are not driven by engine, independent control of electric fan has already been studied, but independent control of electric pump has not been studied according to the conclusion of sci-tech novelty searching. Microcontroller outputs PWM control signal to control the speeds of electric pump and fan according to temperature control program. This cooling system overcomes many shortages existed in traditional cooling system and can automatically adjust cooling capacity according to engine cooling requirement.This research mainly includes the following parts: the over-all design of this cooling system, hardware design and choosing of the control system, software design and tests of this control system. Hardware design of this control system lies in the interface circuit design, while software design mainly include: main control mode design, interruption processing design, filter design, temperature sampling mode design and alarming mode design, etc. According to the test results by Shandong Province Agricultural Machinery Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Station, the cooling system not only can solve the the problem of the over-heating and slow warm-up in the transportation of automobiles, but also has many other advantages, such as flexible installation, fuel saving, low nosing, small volumetric, and low power consumption, etc. This kind of cooling system suit the development of modern engine cooling system, after using this kind of cooling system in automobile engines largely, we will profit more from this device socially and economically.
        

汽车发动机电控水泵冷却系统的设计及试验研究

摘要7-8
Abstract8-9
1 引言10-18
    1.1 课题研究背景10-16
        1.1.1 汽车发动机冷却系统的作用10-11
        1.1.2 当前交通运输中存在的问题11-12
        1.1.3 发动机冷却系统的发展历程12-15
        1.1.4 国内外研究现状15-16
    1.2 课题的研究意义16
    1.3 课题研究内容及技术要求16-18
        1.3.1 研究内容16-17
        1.3.2 技术要求17-18
2 电控水泵冷却系统的设计方案18-20
    2.1 整体设计方案18-19
    2.2 控制系统实现的功能19-20
3 冷却系统中电水泵、电风扇的选型设计20-23
    3.1 电水泵的选型设计20-21
    3.2 电风扇的选型设计21-23
4 控制系统的设计23-50
    4.1 硬件设计23-34
        4.1.1 冷却水温度传感器选择23-27
        4.1.2 微处理器的选择27-31
        4.1.3 输入与报警电路31
        4.1.4 温度显示电路31-32
        4.1.5 电源电路32-33
        4.1.6 电风扇驱动电路设计33-34
        4.1.7 电水泵驱动电路设计34
    4.2 软件设计34-46
        4.2.1 程序总体设计34-35
        4.2.2 主程序模块及其流程图35-36
        4.2.3 中断处理模块及其流程图36
        4.2.4 水温采样模块及流程图36-38
        4.2.5 数字滤波模块38-39
        4.2.6 水温控制模块及流程图39-41
        4.2.7 PID 控制41-45
        4.2.8 PWM 脉冲调制程序设计45-46
    4.3 系统抗干扰的设计46-50
        4.3.1 硬件抗干扰设计47-48
        4.3.2 软件抗干扰设计48-50
5 试验与结果分析50-66
    5.1 试验目的50
    5.2 试验仪器设备50-51
    5.3 试验记录51-58
        5.3.1 采用原冷却系统时发动机性能试验51-54
        5.3.2 采用电控水泵冷却系统时发动机性能试验54-58
    5.4 试验结果分析58-66
        5.4.1 改装前后不同转速时冷却水温度对比58-60
        5.4.2 改装前后不同转速时发动机油耗对比60-64
        5.4.3 道路试验64-66
6 结论及展望66-68
    6.1 课题成果66
    6.2 课题研究工作量66-67
    6.3 课题存在的不足67
    6.4 课题展望67-68
参考文献68-73
附录73-76
致谢76-77
攻读学位期间发表的论文77
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