《目的论视角下的世博会公示语英译》

A Stduy of Chinese-English Translation of Expo Public Signs from the Perspective of Skopostheorie

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:张健 年度:2010  院校: 上海外国语大学

Keywords

public sign, Skopos theory, functionalist translation, translation error, Expo 2010 Shanghai China, translation strategy
        随着长三角地区社会经济的蓬勃发展和对外开放步伐的加快,国际、区域间的友好往来及经济合作日益增多,对外联系和国际交流日益频繁,公示语属于对外宣传的一个重要部分,其公共场所英文使用需求大量增加,公示语的翻译具有重要的意义。随着2010年上海世博会日益临近,截止2009年9月23日,已有242个国家和国际组织确认参加世博会,预计将吸引700O万人次的国内外参观者。届时,在上海乃至整个长三角地区的双语公示语,不仅在数量上,而且在质量上都面临迫切需求。但由于翻译水平参差不齐,以及缺乏统一的参照标准,各地均存在很多英文使用不规范的问题,比如单词拼写错误、语法运用失误、译法不符合英语使用习惯,以及同一中文公示语在不同场合下的译法不一致等等,不但没有方便外籍人士的旅游和生活,反而使他们感到困惑,进而影响了整个长三角地区的社会文明形象和国际化进程。因此,研究公示语的英译有很大的实用价值,对树立长三角地区的国际形象特别是对办好一届精彩、难忘的世博会,具有十分重要的现实意义。功能翻译目的论经过漫长的发展过程,在20世纪70年代脱颖而出,形成了自己独立的理论体系,即强调翻译材料的目的性。其中venneer提出的目的论是功能翻译理论的灵魂。他指出,任何翻译活动都有自己的目的,翻译要以此目的为中心来确立自己的翻译方法。译文的目标读者在决定翻译目的的过程中起了重要的作用。本文以公示语为主题,以目的论为指导,服务于2010年上海世博会为目的,共分六个方面来进行论述:第一部分首先简要说明了研究的意义,使用的素材和研究方法等:第二部分是从公示语的定义着手,分析了公示语的特点以及目前的公示语英译的研究现状:第三部分,本文的理论基础,概括了功能理论的发展过程,接着介绍了目的论及其三大翻译原则:第四部分,围绕目的论在公示语英译中的应用介绍了翻译的基本步骤,翻译的目的论及简介,并结合所收集的实例,图文并茂地指出了目前公示语英译的翻译错误及问题:第五部分针对世博公示语提出一些汉英翻译策略:最后总结了本文的发现及隐舍问题,针对本文的局限方面,提出进一步研究的建议。
    With the booming socio-economic development and the accelerated pace of opening up of the Yangtze River Delta, international and inter-regional economic communication and cooperation become more and more frequent. Bilingual public signs as the important part of external propaganda are in considerable demands in public places. Therefore, the Chinese-English translation of public signs is in great significance.With the coming Expo 2010 Shanghai China, up to September 23, 2009, there have been 242 countries and international organizations confirmed to participate in the expo. And it is expected that the expo will attract about 70 million visitors. So, the bilingual public signs not only in Shanghai but in the region of the Yangtze River Delta are in urgent need to increase its number and improve its quality as well. However, due to uneven level of translation, as well as the lack of uniform reference standard, there are lots of errors on the Chinese-English translation of public signs such as spelling, grammar, and translation. These errors will definitely fail to facilitate the foreigners’traveling, working and living, and even make them feel confused. Thereby to some extent, these errors destroy the image of the entire Yangtze River Delta region, and affect the social civilization and the process of internationalization. Therefore, the research on the Chinese-English translation of public signs has a great practical value and is of great significance to establish the international image of the Yangtze River Delta, especially to host an exciting, unforgettable World Expo.Skopostheorie stresses the purpose of translation. Through a long process of development, the functionalist translation emerged in the 1970s, forming its own independent theoretical system. The Skopos theory pointed out by Vermeer is the soul of functional theory. He stated that any translation activity has its own purpose, on which a translation establish its own translation method. The target audiences play an important role in determining the purpose of the translation.This thesis is in the theme of public signs under the guidance of Skopostheorie and serves for 2010 Shanghai World Expo. The thesis is divided into six parts. The first part of the thesis is the Introduction including a brief description of the significance of the study, the use of materials and research methods, etc. Chapter One starts with the definition of public sign and analyzes the features and the current research status of the Chinese-English translation of public sign. Chapter Two is the theoretical basis of this thesis which summarizes the development of functionalist translation theories and then describes the Skopos theory and its three basic rules. In Chapter Three, the author discusses the application of Skopostheorie in Chinese-English translation of public signs and introduces the basic procedures of translation and translation brief along with the collected examples to illustrate the current errors and problems in the Chinese English translation of public signs. Chapter Four provides some strategies for the translation of expo public signs. And the last part of the thesis is a conclusion which sums up the discovery of the research and the limitations of this thesis and proposes recommendations for further research.
        

《目的论视角下的世博会公示语英译》

Acknowledgements4-5
摘要5-7
Abstract7-8
Introduction11-16
    0.1 Research Significance11-13
    0.2 Literature Review13-14
    0.3 Research Corpus14
    0.4 Research Methodology14
    0.5 Structure of the Thesis14-16
1 An Overview of Public Signs16-20
    1.1 Definition of Public Signs16
    1.2 Features of Public Signs16-17
        1.2.1 Vocabulary16-17
        1.2.2 Syntax17
        1.2.3 Writing Format17
    1.3 Status Research of Chinese-English Translation of public signs17-20
2 Review of Functionalist Translation Theory20-28
    2.1 Nida’s Translation Theory20-21
    2.2 Peter Newmark’s Translation Theory21-23
    2.3 Skopos Theory23-26
        2.3.1 The First Stage–Katherina Reiss23-24
        2.3.2 The Second Stage–Hans. J Vermeer24-25
        3.3.3 The Third Stage–Justa Holz-Manttari25
        3.3.4 The Fourth Stage–Christiane Nord25-26
    2.4 Translation Principles of Skopostheorie26-28
        2.4.1 The Skopos Rule26-27
        2.4.2 The Coherence Rule27
        2.4.3 The Fidelity Rule27
        2.4.4 Relationship of the Three Rules27-28
3 The Application of Skopostheorie in Chinese-English Translation of Public Signs28-44
    3.1 Basic Procedures of Translation28-30
        3.1.1 Process of Analysis28-29
        3.1.2 Process of Transfer and Restructure29
        3.1.3 Process of Testing29-30
        3.1.4 The Relationship of Four Procedures30
    3.2 Skopos of Translation30-31
    3.3 Translation Brief31-33
    3.4 Translation Errors33-44
        3.4.1 Pragmatic Translation Errors34-36
            3.4.1.1 Misunderstanding of the source text34-35
            3.4.1.2 Neglecting the context35
            3.4.1.3 Word-for word translation35-36
        3.4.2 Cultural translation errors36-37
            3.4.2.1 Misunderstanding36-37
            3.4.2.2 Ignorance of the cultural backgrounds37
        3.4.3 Linguistic translation errors37-43
            3.4.3.1 Wrong spelling37-38
            3.4.3.2 Grammatical errors38-39
            3.4.3.3 Misuse of Pinyin39
            3.4.3.4 Misuse of words and expressions39-41
            3.4.3.5 Non-uniform41-42
            3.4.3.6 Repetition42-43
        3.5.4 Text-specific translation errors43-44
4 Strategies for the Translation of EXPO Public Signs44-61
    4.1 Functional Equivalent Translation44-51
        4.1.1 Signs in Public Transportation45-47
        4.1.2 Signs at Tourist Areas and Scenic Spots47-48
        4.1.3 Signs for Commercial Services48-49
        4.1.4 Signs for Infrastructures and Public Services49-51
    4.2 The use of Pinyin51-53
    4.3 Addition and Omission53-55
    4.4 The use of Common Phrases55-61
        4.4.1 No + noun / gerunds55-56
        4.4.2 Noun + Only56-57
        4.4.3 Caution / Danger + Noun / Adjective57-58
        4.4.4 sth. / doing sth. Prohibited58-59
        4.4.5 Please Do not do sth. / Thank you for not doing sth.59-61
5 Conclusion61-63
Bibliography63-65
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