企业职业病防治法律制度的比较研究

Comparative Study on the Legal System of Enterprise’s Liability for Occupational Disease Prevention

作者: 专业:国际法 导师:单海玲 年度:2010  院校: 华东政法大学

Keywords

Occupational Disease Prevention Law, Occupational Safety and Health Convention, Enterprise’s Liability for Occupational Disease Prevention
        随着工业化的发展,职业病已成为危害劳动者身心健康的重大元凶,世界各国防治职业病的形式都比较严峻。劳动者以劳动力换取企业的雇佣,企业对劳动者形成支配地位,应当承担起职业病防治的主体责任。研究企业职业病防治法律制度对保障劳动者在劳动过程中的健康,维护劳动者的权益,促进社会经济的发展具有重要意义。第一章对职业病的法律概念进行了界定,阐述了世界工业文明的进程与对劳动者保护状况的发展。对各国立法对企业职业病防治法律责任的规定作了简要介绍。第二章本文重点探讨了企业职业病防治法律责任的法理依据。健康权作为劳动者享有的基本权利理应受到保护,职业健康是劳动者健康的重要组成部分,保护劳动者的职业健康是保护健康权的应有之义。职业病与劳动者的职业活动息息相关,在劳动者的职业活动中处于支配地位的企业应当切实承担起职业病防治的法律责任,保护劳动者的健康。第三章对英美日三国职业健康安全立法及国际劳工组织公约中职业病防治合作机制、职业健康安全管理模式和违反职业健康安全规定的处罚机制加以研究并进行综合评析。自工人运动兴起以来,各国都开始进行职业安全健康立法,职业病防治作为其重要组成部分也受到各国重视。国际劳动组织自成立以来就致力于保护工人的生活与健康,主张通过劳工立法来改善劳工状况,进而获得世界持久和平建立社会正义。世界各国和国际劳工组织在职业安全健康方面的立法都值得我们借鉴。第四章对我国企业职业病防治的趋势与法律对策作了探讨。我国政府一直致力于职业病防治工作,经过多年发展形成了包括法律、行政法规、部门规章及职业卫生技术标准的较为完善的法律体系,确定了“预防为主”的职业病防治方针。但由于我国经济社会发展迅速,再加上国际金融危机对我国劳动力市场的冲击,我国目前职业病防治的形势依然较为严峻,劳动者以极端方式维权的事件值得我们警醒。因此我国应尽快改善企业职业病防治的法律环境,制定一部全面涵盖职业安全和职业健康的综合性立法并加强对国际条约的转化、吸收。同时在立法中适当加重企业职业病防治的责任,确立举证责任倒置的原则,明确用人单位的终局责任,加强立法的处罚力度。完善我国职业健康安全监管体系,建立起劳动者与企业的合作机制,发挥劳动者对企业职业病防治工作的监督作用,从而最大限度地改善劳动者的工作环境,保障劳动者的健康和福利,使我国职业安全卫生立法体系更趋完善。
    With industrialization,occupational disease have become a major culprit to the physical and mental health of workers,the problem of occupational disease prevention and treatment becomes more serious around the world. Workers trade their value for engagement, so enterprises, which have a dominant position to workers, should assume main liability for prevention and treatment of occupational disease. Study of the legal system of corporate occupational disease prevention is important to the protection of workers’health in the labor process, the safeguard of workers’interests and the development of society and economy.Chapter one defines the legal concept of occupational disease, describes the process of world industrial civilization and the development of worker protection. Chapter one introduces briefly several states’legislation of corporate liability for occupational disease prevention.Chapter two focus on the legal basis of enterprise’s liability for occupational disease prevention. As a basic right, workers’right to health should be protected. Occupational health is an important part of workers’health, protection of workers’occupational health is the proper meaning of the protection of workers’right to health. Occupational disease is related to workers’occupational activities, enterprise which is dominant in worker’s professional activities should assume the liability for the prevention of occupational disease and for the safeguard of worker’s health.Chapter three makes a comprehensive Analysis of United States, United Kingdom, Japan and ILO cooperation mechanism of occupational disease, occupational health and safety management system and punishment mechanism for the violation of legal provision. Since the rise of labor movement, states has begun occupational health and safety legislation. As one important component, occupational disease prevention is also emphasized. Since the establishment of ILO, it has committed to the protection of worker’s living standard and health and advocated to improve working condition through labor legislation so that it can achieve lasting peace and social justice. We should make reference to the legislation of states around world and ILO.Chapter four discusses the trends and legislation of enterprise’s occupational disease prevention in China. Chinese government has committed to the prevention of occupational disease, has formed a relatively sound legal system concluding law, regulations and occupational health standards and has established the policy of prevention. As china’s rapid economic and social development and due to the impact of international financial crisis to china’s labor market, Current situation of occupational disease prevention is still severe in China and we should be aware of fact that workers are protecting themselves in an extreme way. Therefore, China should improve its legal environment on occupational disease prevention as soon as possible by enacting a comprehensive legislation which could cover occupational safety and occupational health as well and emphasizing the transformation and absorption of international treaties. At the same time, china should increase corporate liability for occupational disease prevention appropriately, by changing the burden of proof from workers to enterprises, clearly stating the final liability of the enterprises and strengthening the punishment. China should improve the occupational health and safety monitoring system, establishing the employee-employer cooperation mechanism, making workers playing a more active role in the monitoring of enterprise’s occupational disease prevention to improve working condition, safeguard the health and welfare of workers and make our legal system of occupational disease prevention even better.
        

企业职业病防治法律制度的比较研究

摘要4-6
abstract6-8
导言11-12
第一章 企业与职业病防治12-18
    第一节 职业病的界定及其分类12-14
        一、职业病的概念12
        二、法定职业病的类别与种类12-14
    第二节 工业文明与劳动保护14-16
    第三节 企业职业病防治的法律责任16-18
第二章 企业职业病防治法律责任的法理依据18-23
    第一节 基本权利之保障18-20
        一、健康权是劳动者享有的基本权利18-19
        二、职业病防治是保护健康权的重要内容19-20
    第二节 企业社会责任理论20-21
    第三节 人力资本理论21-23
第三章 企业职业病防治法律制度国际比较23-41
    第一节 企业职业病防治的合作机制23-30
        一、国际劳动组织的合作机制24-25
        二、英国的合作机制25-28
        三、日本的合作机制28-29
        四、各合作机制之评析29-30
    第二节 企业职业安全健康管理体系标准30-36
        一、美国职业安全健康管理体系31-32
        二、英国职业安全健康管理体系标准32-34
        三、中国职业安全健康管理体系标准34-35
        四、国际劳工组织的职业安全健康管理体系标准35
        五、各职业安全健康管理体系评析35-36
    第三节 违反职业健康安全规定的处罚机制36-41
        一、美国1970 年《职业安全与卫生法》的惩罚制度37
        二、日本1972 年《劳动安全卫生法》的惩罚制度37-38
        三、英国1974 年《职业安全卫生法》的惩罚制度38-39
        四、中国2001 年《职业病防治法》的惩罚制度39-40
        五、各惩罚制度之评析40-41
第四章 经济全球化趋势下我国企业职业病防治的趋势与法律对策41-50
    第一节 我国企业职业病防治的特点与现状41-45
        一、“预防为主”方针的确立41-43
        二、我国企业职业病防治的现状43-44
        三、国际金融危机对企业职业病防治之挑战44-45
    第二节 改善企业职业病防治的法律环境45-50
        一、我国现行企业职业病防治的法律架构45-47
        二、我国企业职业病防治的立法的改善47-50
结语50-52
参考文献52-57
在读期间发表的学术论文与研究成果57-58
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