商业秘密保护中的竞业禁止协议研究

On Non-competition Agreement of Trade Secret

作者: 专业:法律 导师:王莲峰 年度:2010  院校: 华东政法大学

Keywords

Trade Secret, Non-Competition Agreement, Analysis about Constitutions, Liability, Legislative Proposes
        人才流动造成商业秘密的泄露已是不争的事实,竞业禁止协议作为竞业禁止制度的重要内容,已经引起越来越多用人单位的重视,成为用人单位保护商业秘密的重要手段之一。我国竞业禁止制度相对来说起步较晚,有关约定竞业禁止的立法主要停留在部门规章和地方性立法上,2008年1月1日新《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》(以下简称《劳动合同法》)的实施是对我国约定竞业禁止制度法律体系化的完善,但是《劳动合同法》只是对约定竞业禁止进行了比较原则性的规定,并没有明确提出竞业禁止协议的概念。由于竞业禁止协议制度规定尚不完善,在立法和实践中暴露出一些争论和问题,本文结合具体的案例,以竞业禁止协议为中心进行深入分析。首先介绍竞业禁止制度和竞业禁止协议的基本理论问题以及国内外关于竞业禁止协议制度的立法规定,重点就竞业禁止协议效力认定的构成要件和违反竞业禁止协议的法律责任进行分析,借鉴国外竞业禁止协议制度的立法和实践,结合我国的实际情况,提出我国竞业禁止协议制度的立法完善的建议。全文共分为四个部分:引言部分列举了我国近年来发生的竞业禁止的典型案例,通过案例引出目前竞业禁止协议制度所存在的问题。第一部分从竞业禁止制度的基本概念入手,阐述了竞业禁止的分类以及利用竞业禁止保护商业秘密的理论依据。接下来重点分析竞业禁止协议的性质,通过对竞业禁止协议与保密协议、法定竞业禁止和不可避免披露原则等其它相关概念的比较,分析竞业禁止协议在商业秘密保护上的优势。第二部分在介绍国内外关于竞业禁止协议效力认定的有关立法规定后,提出我国竞业禁止协议应当具备的构成要件,并通过案例实证分析等方法对构成要件进行逐一分析,提出竞业禁止协议所涉及的劳动者身份、业务范围,地域范围,合理期限,经济补偿金的标准等构成要件的合理限制的标准,最后对影响竞业禁止协议终止的情形进行分析。第三部分重点对违反竞业禁止协议法的法律责任进行分析。首先分析构成违反竞业禁止协议违约责任的行为,接着分别对用人单位、劳动者的违约责任和新用人单位的连带责任进行逐一探讨,借鉴国外的违约责任形式,提出完善我国竞业禁止违约的责任的建议,并结合案例重点分析新用人单位承担竞业禁止连带责任的情形,以完善我国违反竞业禁止协议违约责任的规定。第四部分是本文的重点,综合上述的分析,提出了完善我国竞业禁止协议制度的立法建议。首先提出我国应当在法律层面明确竞业禁止协议的法律地位,以达到完善竞业禁止制度的法律体系的目的;其次,对竞业禁止协议的期限应当做出更灵活的规定,以满足不同行业的不同要求;再次,对竞业禁止经济补偿金应当在法律层面给出参考标准,并且经济补偿金的支付方式可以规定的更加灵活,允许当事人自由约定;最后,提出我国立法应当明确新用人单位的承担连带责任的各种情形,期望完善我国竞业禁止违约责任的制度,有利于实践中纠纷的解决。
    The disclosure of trade secrets caused by talents flow is an indisputable fact,Non-competition agreement ,as an important part of the Prohibition of business strife,has been one of the important methods to protecting trade secrets. In China, Prohibition on business strife system started relatively late, the legislation about Non-Competition agreement mainly focus on the department regulations and local legislation. On Jan1, 2008, the promulgation and implementation of the“the People’s Republic of China on Employment Contracts”(hereinafter referred to briefly as“Law on Employment Contracts") confirmed the legal status of promissory prohibition on business strife. However, the provisions on“Law on Employment Contracts”are generally principles; the lack of more specification about Non-Competition Agreement caused some disputes and problems in practice. This paper combines several typical cases happened in China to make an in-depth analysis on the issues related on Non-Competition agreements. This paper starts from introducing the basic theory of prohibition on business strife and introducing legislations about Non-Competition agreement domestically and internationally, then this paper emphasizes on analyzing the elements of Non-Competition agreements and liabilities of violations on Non-Competition agreement. This paper still learns from legislation and practice of foreign prohibition on business strife, combined with the actual situation in China, gives some suggestion to perfect Non-Competition Agreement in China.In addition to the introduction and the conclusion, this paper is divided into four parts:Introduction mainly lists several typical cases happened in China recently years, and then points out the main problems on Non-Competition agreement In China.First part mainly introduces the basic concepts of Non-Competition agreement. The author analyzes the legal natures of Non-Competition agreement, and points out the advantages of using Non-Competition Agreement by making some research in comparison with Non-disclosure agreement, statutory Non-competition, inevitable disclosure theory. At the end of this part, the author demonstrates the theory of Non-Competition agreements on protecting trade secrets.The second part: after introducing the relevant legislations on the effective elements of Non-Competition agreements at home and abroad, the author mainly points out the available constitutions of Non-Competition agreement in China. And by combining the typical cases happened in China, the author analyzes seven elements one by one in-depth, and expounds the reasonable restrictions of each element, such as the business scope, geographic scope, reasonable period of time, financial compensation standards, and so on. Finally, the author analyzes the situation of terminating the Non-Competition agreements.The third parts focuses on analyzing the liabilities of breach of the non-competition agreements .First the author analyzes how to judge the situation of breaching the agreement ,and then expounds the liabilities on three parts: firstly, employer’s liabilities includes performance of obligation, liquidated damaged payment, compensation for damages, and termination of Non-Competition agreements; secondly, the liabilities of employees ,thirdly, the author makes some research on the new employers’liabilities by combining two typical cases.The fourth part is the key point of this paper, through the above analysis; the author proposes four suggestions to perfect the Non-Competition Agreement system. Firstly, the author figures that the Non-Competition Agreement should be regulated at the level of legislation law of the National People’s Congress clearly. secondly, according to the different situations, the time limitation should be regulated in a more flexible way; thirdly, the legislative at the level of National People’s Congress should make an reference standard economical compensation, and the methods of payment can be more flexible; fourth, it should stipulate various cases clearly where new employer assumes liabilities under the theory of third party trespass.
        

商业秘密保护中的竞业禁止协议研究

摘要4-6
Abstract6-8
导言11-14
    第一节 近年来我国发生的有关竞业禁止的典型案例11-13
    第二节 我国目前有关竞业禁止协议制度所存在的问题13-14
第一章 竞业禁止协议的基本概念14-22
    第一节 竞业禁止制度的概念、分类和理论依据14-17
        一、竞业禁止制度的概念14
        二、竞业禁止制度的分类14-16
        三、竞业禁止制度保护商业秘密的理论依据16-17
    第二节 竞业禁止协议的性质、与相关概念的比较17-22
        一、竞业禁止协议的性质18-19
        二、竞业禁止协议与相关概念的比较19-22
第二章 竞业禁止协议效力认定研究22-34
    第一节 国内外立法对竞业禁止协议效力认定的规定22-26
        一、美国、德国、日本对竞业禁止协议认定的规定22-24
        二、我国立法对竞业禁止协议效力认定的规定24-26
    第二节 竞业禁止协议效力构成要件的分析26-32
        一、用人单位需要拥有可保护的商业秘密26-27
        二、劳动者的身份条件27-28
        三、竞业禁止协议的形式28-29
        四、竞业禁止的业务范围29
        五、竞业禁止的地域范围29-30
        六、竞业禁止的期限30
        七、竞业禁止的对价—经济补偿金30-32
    第三节 竞业禁止协议效力的终止32-34
        一、商业秘密已经进入公知领域32
        二、竞业禁止义务人支付违约金32-33
        三、用人单位变更、终止33
        四、竞业禁止期限届满33-34
第三章 违反竞业禁止协议的民事救济34-40
    第一节 违反竞业禁止协议的行为判断34
    第二节 违反竞业禁止协议的责任34-40
        一、用人单位的违约责任34-36
        二、劳动者的违约责任36-38
        三、新用人单位承担连带责任的情形38-40
第四章 完善我国竞业禁止协议制度的立法建议40-45
    第一节 在法律层面明确竞业禁止协议的法律地位40
    第二节 对竞业禁止协议的期限做出更灵活的规定40-41
    第三节 对竞业禁止经济补偿金的补偿标准在法律层面上给出参照标准并完善补偿金的支付方式41-43
    第四节 明确新用人单位承担连带责任的情形43-45
结论45-46
参考文献46-51
在读期间发表的学术论文与研究成果51-52
后记52-53
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