美国宗教:明日黄花或是活力依旧

Contemporary American Religion: Secularized or Preserved?

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:王恩铭 年度:2010  院校: 上海外国语大学

Keywords

modernization, secularization, religious strength, divine market theory
        长期以来,学术界对美国宗教的问题争论不休,一直没有形成统一看法。提出现代化命题的社会学家,人类学家和政治学家认为现代化进程会导致宗教世俗化,宗教将日渐式微,最终消亡。然而,随着人类社会现代性的加深,这一世俗化预言并未在世界范围内实现。美国作为最受现代化程度最高的国家,呈现出一派生机勃勃的宗教景象,与欧洲的宗教形势形成强烈反差。为挽救世俗化范式,一些学者声称美国宗教已失去了其宗教神圣性,徒留一派繁荣的表象,另一些学者则认为美国宗教丧失了社会影响力和话语权,沦为了纯粹的精神慰藉和个人选择。与此同此,另一派宗教学家提出完全不同的范式,认为宗教不但没有被削弱,反而愈加强大了,而美国宗教就是典型。本文试图从理论,数据和历史角度分析美国宗教,论证美国宗教未被世俗化,即美国宗教不但保留了其神圣的宗教性,并且仍然扮演着不可或缺的社会角色。由于学术界对宗教和世俗化的定义尚无定论,本文紧扣最基本的三个宗教元素,从宗教头脑,个人宗教行为,和宗教团体的社会影响力三个层面分析美国宗教的境况。本文首先通过对现代化命题和世俗化范式的理论分析,得出(1)现代化进程并非一定引起宗教的世俗化,现代性在一定程度上反而会提高人们对宗教的需要。其次,通过分析美国宗教的数据,可知(2)美国宗教在宗教头脑,个人宗教行为和宗教团体的社会活动三个层面上都非常活跃,由此反驳了美国宗教失去神圣性和社会影响力的观点。再次,本文借用宗教市场模型,通过回顾美国历史,推导出(3)美国宗教之所以繁荣是因为美国社会的多元化和现代化,美国法律和政策对宗教的规定,以及层出不穷的美国宗教派别让美国社会具备了建立一个健康的宗教市场所需的条件。
    The state of American religion is a controversial issue, much debated by sociologists, anthropologists, and political theorists. Early theorists claim that American religion has been secularized just like other religions in world. Later, when American religion prospered, they suggested that either American religion was no longer sacred in nature, or American religion is somehow exceptional. However, other scholars argue that American religion is not secularized at all. American religion has diffused and relocated into society, but definitely not secularized. They state that social change does not necessary damage the health of religion, and in some cases, it may even boost religious growth, which is the case in America.This paper aims to provide a general analysis of contemporary American religion from three basic facets of religion and attempts to demonstrate that American religion is preserved by defending religion against the secularization theory, examining statistics of the American religion, and analyzing possible reasons for religious vitality in America.
        

美国宗教:明日黄花或是活力依旧

Acknowledgement4-5
Abstract (Chinese)5-6
Abstract (English)6
Introduction8-14
Chapter One Religion and Society14-22
    1.1 Definition of Religion14-18
    1.2 The Change of Religion’s Environment: Modernization18-22
Chapter Two Religion’s Reaction to Modernization22-39
    2.1 The Secularization Paradigm23-29
    2.2 The Defense against Secularization29-36
    2.3 The Myth of the European Religion36-39
Chapter Three The Persistence of American Religion39-52
    3.1 The Sacredness of the American Religious Mind40-43
    3.2 The Intensive Participation of the American Individual43-46
    3.3 The Social Influence of American Religious Organizations46-52
Chapter Four Reasons of Religious Persistence : The Divine Market Paradigm52-60
    4.1 America’s Demand for Religion53-55
    4.2 Legal Support: Governmental Backup55-57
    4.3 Sufficient Supply: Religious Pluralism57-60
Conclusion60-64
Bibliography64-69
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