《左传》征引古文献研究

Research of Quotations in Zuo Zhuan

作者: 专业:中国古典文献学 导师:郑杰文 年度:2012 学位:硕士  院校: 山东大学

关键词

左传 征引 古文献
Keywords

Zuo Zhuan, Quote, Ancient documents

        《左传》与《公羊传》、《谷梁传》并称“春秋三传”,为儒家经典之一,是先秦历史散文的典型代表,也是研究春秋时期思想文化与社会情况的重要史料,在经学史、文学史、史学史上有着举足轻重的地位。正因如此,《左传》研习者自来颇多,号曰“春秋左传学”。而作为《左传》文本中不可回避的一部分,其所征引的古文献也逐渐引起了重视,成为研究先秦学术传承与开启的重要资料。《传》引古文献包括典籍类、言谈习语类、谣谚类三种,称引主体上至王侯,下到民众,场合多样、主旨鲜明,在保存原始文献上功不可没。文章以对三类文献的搜辑为切入点,旨在作全面整理与研究。绪论部分阐明研究对象的学术价值、研究现状、选取标准及文章大体观点。第一章综述则剖析春秋时期征引风气盛行的原因、介绍三类征引文献概况,认为“信而好古”的历史观与“信而有征”的言辞观、学术下移、内政外交需求、言谈品评风气等四方面共同促使征引文献成为一种风尚。典籍类古文献征引条目最多,包括有原文征引者、只见书目者两大类,第二章对其中所见之《军志》、《夏训》、《周礼》、“象魏”、“志”、“书”、《仲虺之志》、《盘庚之诰》、《唐诰》、《伯禽》、《誓命》等作了考证。通过整理《左传》征引典籍,我们认为春秋时期典籍文献呈现出以下特征:史类典籍流传广泛,史记增多;以刑书的公布为代表,档案文献出现新态势;兵书继续发展,用兵思想发生转折;《诗》《书》权威性增强,在学术上受到重视,经典化条件成熟。言谈习语类古文献征引名目最繁,大体分作注明言谈者与未注明者两种。是类文献烙有春秋人的思想文化特征,总体反映出各类学术在其时的萌芽与发展情况及其对后世学派的影响。其中“礼乐观”、“神人观”直接影响到孔子,使对“礼之本”的探求与重民思想成为儒家的核心理念;法治思潮与“刑赏结合”、“立公去私”观念的萌芽为战国法家理论体系的构建奠定了基础;兵家“尚利重功”、“以法治军”及诡道用兵论此时业已出现,同时产生的还有后世倡导的弭兵思想。谣谚类古文献包括谚语、民谣两种,在三类文献中占比重最小。第四章归纳这类文献的征引类别与主旨,从材料入手,通过分析其形式特征与所体现的价值取向来探讨春秋时期民间文献的特质。同时,本文认为,《左传》对谣谚的征引作为一种现象,对后世史学创作、文学创作有重要影响,在开阔史学视野、提升史学精神、丰富史笔手法及提高文学创作俗雅兼容性等方面意义颇大。而首次对谣谚有意识地收录也开启了后来各种专集的先河,历代皆不乏专门记录谣谚等民间文献的专作,大抵最初导于此。
    Zuo Zhuan is one of the classics of Confucian, called’three commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Period’together with Gong Yang Zhuan and Gu Liang Zhuan. It is a typical representative of Pre-Qin dynasty historical essays, as well as an important historical material for the study on Spring and Autumn Period, Zuo Zhuan acts an important role in history of Confucian literature and historiography. Therefore, there have been so many Zuo Zhuan researchers from the beginning, named "study of Zuo Zhuan". As an vital part of the texts, the documents that quoted came to attracted attention and became important opening materials for the research of academic inheritance in Pre-Qin dynasty. There are three kinds of documents included——classics, conversation idioms, folk songs and proverbs, which are quoted by marquises or ordinary people. It makes an indispensable contribution to preserve the original literature.Based on the collection of the three documents mentioned above, this article aims to make comprehensive consolidation and research. The introduction part expounds academic value, research status, selection standards of the research objects and general view of the article. Chapter One analyses that why people in the Spring and Autumn Period liked quoting documents and also introduces general situation of the objects. Through these, I think that people’s sense of history and conversation, motion of the academic, domestic and foreign affairs’ demands, atmosphere of commenting contributed to this trend together.Classics are the most quoted in Zuo Zhuan, including their texts or only titles. Chapter Two makes a textual research on parts of them, for example, Through sorting these documents, we think that classics in the Spring and Autumn Period Showed the following characteristics:Historical classics were wide-spread and had a growth in the number; Archives had taken on a new appearance; Classics of military continued to develop, along with changes on the military thought; authority of The Book of Songs and Shang Shu were enhanced, receiving attention in the academic.Zuo Zhuan has various kinds of conversation idioms, some have speakers while some don’t. They embody ideological and cultural characteristics of the people in Spring and Autumn Period, which also reflect the initial stage and the development of academic and its influence. Among them, new sense of ritual and music, god and human had direct impacts on Confucius, making the pursue for essence of the ritual and people-oriented thought be the core concept of Confucianism. Nomocracy trend, views of penalty and reward, public-private values laid the foundation for the construction of theoretical system of Legalism in Warring States Period. At this time, military strategist also began to pay more attention to Utility, advocating governing the army by law and anti-war thought.Folk songs and proverbs that quoted account for the smallest proportion. Chapter Four generalizes their categories and theme, discussing the characteristics of folk documents in Spring and Autumn Period by analyzing their formal features and value orientation. At the same time, the quotation of the above documents in Zuo Zhuan had impacts on historiography creation and literary creation of later generations, and it’s of great significance in broadening the view of historiography, enhancing historical spirit, enriching historical writing techniques and so on. Zuo Zhuan is the first one who collected folk songs and proverbs consciously, and many similar works in later generations originated from it.
        

《左传》征引古文献研究

中文摘要6-8
ABSTRACT8-9
绪论10-15
第一章 《左传》征引古文献研究综述15-23
    第一节 春秋时期征引风气的形成及原因15-20
    第二节 《左传》征引古文献之类别与概况20-23
第二章 《左传》征引典籍类古文献之研究23-48
    第一节 典籍类古文献征引类别23-26
    第二节 征引古文献所见典籍考辨26-35
    第三节 从典籍类古文献的征引看春秋时期典籍文献之流传与发展35-48
第三章 《左传》征引言谈习语类古文献之研究48-69
    第一节 言谈习语类古文献征引类别48-51
    第二节 征引言谈类古文献相关人物考51-56
    第三节 从《传》引言谈习语看春秋时期的思想观念对后世学派之影响56-69
第四章 《左传》征引谣谚类古文献之研究69-82
    第一节 《左传》引谣谚类古文献之类别69-74
    第二节 从谣谚类古文献的征引看春秋时期民间文献的特质74-78
    第三节 《左传》征引谣谚现象之影响78-82
结语82-83
附录一:《左传》征引条目83-106
附录二:《军志》辑佚条目106-111
参考文献111-115
谢辞115-116
学位论文评阅及答辩情况表116
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