防治水稻螟虫单项技术措施的评价及储备技术—转基因水稻对非靶标生物影响的研究

The Study on Several Technical Measures for Preventing and Controlling Rice Stem Borers and the Effects of Transgenic Rice on Non-Target Organisms

作者: 专业:昆虫生态学 导师:张国安 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

stripped stem borer, yellow stem borer, Sesamia inferens, rice leafroller, transgenic insect-resistant rice, arthropods, target pests, non-target pests, control effect, drop eggs amounts, trapping amounts, IPM, agricultural control, physical control, chem

        水稻螟虫是我国水稻上的主要害虫,发生面积广,为害重,已经成为水稻增产的主要限制性因素之一,因此有效地控制水稻害虫对水稻增产和保证我国的粮食有效供给具有重要意义,目前防治水稻螟虫主要采用化学防治,单纯的使用化学杀虫剂,不仅引起“3R”问题,而且影响稻田生物群落的多样性和破坏生态平衡失调,同时农药残留影响人畜健康、食品安全等。本文通过大田条件下,研究防治螟虫的各个单项技术对螟虫的防治效果,节肢动物群落影响以及田间落卵量和诱蛾效果等,在此基础上提出水稻螟虫无公害的综合防治体系。同时,研究转基因抗虫水稻对稻田节肢动物群落结构和稳定性多样性的影响以及靶标害虫对转基因抗虫水稻的抗性,以期能为转基因水稻的商业化生产提供理论和实践上的支持。1农业防治田间防效本研究中使用的农业防治措施包括适时提早翻耕、科学施肥、科学管水、低桩收割和农业综合防治。农业措施对于螟虫有很好的防治效果,二化螟落卵量在不同类型的稻田与对照相比降低42.85%—80.00%,早稻和中稻上二化螟的防治效果分别为45.88%和53.95%,三化螟防治效果为90.68%,其中早耕灌水防效为35.84%;同时,农业防治措施能显著提高捕食性和寄生性昆虫数量,降低植食昆虫数量;另外,农业防治田块显著提高了稻田节肢动物多样性,保持稻田生物群落的平衡。2药剂防治螟虫田间防效2008年在大冶对20%氯虫苯甲酰胺SC(康宽)、锐劲特80%WG、乐斯本48%EC、茚虫威15%EC、杀虫单90%WP、乙酰甲胺磷30%EC、异硫氰酸酯·锐劲特(宏锐)、异硫氰酸酯(宏劲13号)等8种药剂防治三化螟的效果进行田间试验,结果表明:20%氯虫苯甲酰胺SC(康宽)卵孵盛末期施药的防治效果优于卵孵高峰期;在Simpson优势集中性指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H)、均匀性指数、群落相似性指数方面,20%氯虫苯甲酰胺SC(康宽)与对照相比基本接近。因此,20%氯虫苯甲酰胺SC(康宽)在三化螟卵孵盛末期施药作为推荐药剂,乐斯本48%EC可以作为推荐使用的备用药剂。2009年在鄂州、大冶、当阳3地试验对常用的防治二化螟的药剂进行了田间小区试验,期望筛选出适合当地的农药种类。结果表明,25%毒死蜱和异硫氰酸酯·毒死蜱(宏毒)在大冶有很好的防治效果,药后10天和25天防效分别为80.81%、80.81%和74.81%、75.59%;在鄂州,异硫氰酸酯·毒死蜱(宏毒)、异硫氰酸酯·锐劲特(宏劲1号)、40%毒死蜱EC和75%乙酰甲胺磷WP,早稻防效分别为93.04%、89.74%、91.58%和94.51%,晚稻上分别为96.01%、88.89%、92.02%和96.90%;在当阳,杀单·.苏云药后7天和15天的防效分别为96.73%和67.38%。节肢动物多样性调查表明,各个药剂的处理对对照相比,能降低植食者数量,提高捕食者优势度,节肢动物群落的主要参数方面都没有差别,说明各个药剂对节肢动物群落无负面的影响,这可能与小区面积较小和取样时存在误差有关。3性引诱剂田间防效采用水盆诱捕器和三角诱捕器研究二化螟和三化螟性引诱剂的防治效果,诱捕器放置密度为3诱捕器每亩。结果表明,二化螟性引诱剂的诱蛾量随着水稻类型(早中晚稻)和天气的变化而变化,总体的诱蛾量很小(0.35头/盆/日左右),在不同试验地点防治效果在26.23%—61.88%之间波动,有效的防控范围半径2.5m左右;三化螟诱芯SI2009521A的效果优于三化螟诱芯SI20093241,平均每天单钵诱螟蛾量分别为0.57头和0.49头,防治效果在25%—34%之间。节肢动物群落结构调查结果表明性诱区能都提高捕食者的数量,节肢动物群落的主要参数与对照相比也存在明显的优势,说明性引诱剂对环境比较友好。4频振灯田间防效本文对灯光诱虫的防治效果进行了研究,采用佳多公司生产的频振式杀虫灯,密度为150米/盏,结果表明频振灯诱蛾量很大,三化螟诱蛾量为26.2头/灯/夜,灯下三化螟蛾雌雄比为1.51:1,平均怀卵率20.7%;鄂州,二化螟3盏灯共诱蛾量为1185头,性比为5.24:1,平均怀卵率21.68%;当阳,3盏灯共诱蛾量为7886头,第二代雌雄比为1.86:1,雌蛾怀卵率21.43%,第三代雌雄比为1.75:1,雌蛾怀卵率25.05%。对雌蛾的引诱效果优于雄蛾,田间螟虫落卵量比对照减少量在53.53%—77.98%之间,对螟虫有很好的防治效果,防效达到60%以上,有效控制范围距灯的距离为30-50m。节肢动物群落结构调查结果表明性诱区能都提高捕食者的数量,降低植食者的数量,节肢动物群落的主要参数与对照相比不一致。5综合防控效果该试验主要在鄂州和当阳进行,有机组合各个单项防治措施研究对二化螟的综合防治效果,结果很好的说明综防区不仅能够减轻二化螟的发生和为害,降低田间落乱量50%以上,把螟害率控制在2%以下,防治效果控制在38.77%和82.21%之间,增加产量,早稻单产增15.8%,晚稻增产7.53%,而且能够减少农药使用量和使用次数,在一定程度上保护了生态环境,发挥了生态控制的作用。6转基因水稻对稻田节肢动物群落的影响节肢动物各功能团优势类群组成在Bt水稻田与对照间基本相同:植食性昆虫优势类群大多是螟蛾科的稻纵卷叶螟和飞虱科的白背飞虱与褐飞虱;寄生性昆虫大多是寄蝇科、茧蜂科和姬蜂科;捕食性天敌以蜘蛛占绝对优势;中性昆虫主要是蚊科和摇蚊科,转基因水稻田在4个功能团的组成和优势度方面与对照田没有差别。节肢动物群落的主要参数除物种丰富度年际之间有变化之外、其余三个参数Simpson指数、Shannon-Winner指数和均匀度指数等方面与对照没有差别,转基因抗虫水稻田块和对照田Bray-Curtis距离系数,相异性指数小,群落相似性比较高。说明转基因抗虫水稻对田间的节肢动物群落的影响总体来说比较小,对节肢动物群落没有负面的影响。Bt水稻和相应的对照田块,非靶标害虫飞虱科和叶蝉科的主要昆虫以及优势蜘蛛及其组成的主要科的数量动态变化基本一致,年际之间略有变化,说明转基因水稻非靶标害虫刺吸式口器害虫和捕食性天敌蜘蛛类群没有负面的影响。7螟虫对转基因水稻的抗性研究转基因抗虫水稻不论是第一年种植的新品种还是连续种植十年的品种,不论是在大田或者网罩,自然感虫或者人工接虫条件,接虫量多或少,转基因抗虫水稻都能够对螟虫的为害有着比较高的抗性水平,螟害率低于1.5%,卷叶率低于12.62%。以上单项措施的研究结果表明,农业防治和灯光诱杀能够有效的减少螟虫田间落卵量,对螟虫有很好的防控效果;诱芯的效果由于受到多种因素的影响对螟虫的控制波动较大;化学农药对螟虫同样具有很好的防控效果,较好的药剂有20%氯虫苯甲酰胺SC(康宽)、乐斯本48%EC、25%毒死蜱、异硫氰酸酯·毒死蜱(宏毒)、异硫氰酸酯·锐劲特(宏劲1号)、40%毒死蜱EC、75%乙酰甲胺磷WP、杀单·.苏抗虫转基因水稻对螟虫也具有比较好的控制效果,对非靶标刺吸式害虫的防控作用比较弱。各个单项防控技术措施能够减少植食者的数量,增加捕食者的数量,对田间的节肢动物群落无不良影响。根据评价的结果,我们认为的综合防控技术是:选育抗性品种,以农业防治为基础,充分发挥自然天敌的生物控制作用和选用灯光诱杀,辅以化学农药防治。
    Rice stem borers were major rice pests in China, which were wide in occurrence area and had heavy damage on the rice, and had become a major limiting factor in rice production, so effective control of them would great significance on rice grain yields and ensureing the supply of our country’s. Rice stem borers currently were mainly controlled by chemical pesticides, which not only leaded to "3R" problem and effected the diversity of biological communities in the paddy fields and destroyed ecological balance but also effected human and animal health, food security. This paper mainl assessed the various techniques for controlling rice stem borer in terms of effect, arthropod community as well as eggs amounts and trapping effect under field conditions. Above those, IPM for controlling rice stem borers were proposed. We also studied the effects of transegenic insect-resistant rice on arthropod community and diversity in paddy field, as well as target pests may generated resistance to transegenic insect-resistant rice. These provide theoretical and practical evidence for commercial production of genetically modified rice.1 Agricultural control in paddy fieldAgricultural control measures included timely plowing ahead, scientific fertilization, and scientific water management, low-pile harvest and agriculture integrated control. Agricultural control had good control effects for the stem borer, eggs of SSB decreased from 42.85 percent to 80.00 percent comparing with the control in different types of rice,the effects of SSB were 45.88 percent in early rice and 53.95 percent in later rice, control effect of yellow rice borer was 90.68 percent, control effect of irrigation farming was35.84 percent; At the same time, agricultural control measures can significantly increase the number of the predatory and parasitic insects and decrease the number of herbivorous insects; In addition, Agricultural control significantly increased the rice arthropod diversity and maintained the balance of biological communities.2 Chemical control in paddy fieldField experiments that eight chemical pesticide(Chlorantraniliprole 20% SC, fipronil 80% WG, Chlorpyrifos 48% EC, indoxacarb 15% EC, monosultap 90% WP, Acephate 30% EC, Hong Rui, HongJing13) for controllng YSB were tested in Daye in 2008, The results show that Chlorantraniliprole 20% SC has better effects at the end of egg hatching than the peak and it was also similar to the CK in terms of Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H), evenness index, community dissimilarity index. So, Chlorantraniliprole 20% SC will be a better choice for controlling Yellow stem borer considering all the above factors and Chlorpyriphos 48%EC can be another.The pesticides for controlling SSB were selected in Ezhou, Daye, Dangyang in 2009. The results showed that 25% chlorpyrifos and HongDu had good control effect in Daye, control effects were seperately 80.81 percent,80.81 percent and 74.81 percent,75.59 percent after 10 and 25 days; Hongdu、Hongjing 1、40% Chlorpyrifos EC and 75%Acephate wp was better for Ezhou,the control effects for early and later rice were 93.04 percent,89.74 percent,91.58 percent,94.51 percent,96.01 percent 88.89 percent, 92.02 percent and 96.90 percent; control effects of Monosultap·Bt in Dangyang.were 96.73 percent and 67.38 percent after7 and 15 days.Various pesticide treatments can increase the number of predators, reduce the number of herbivores and have no difference compared to control groups on the main parameters arthropod community, indicating the various pesticides had non-negative effects on arthropod communities, which may be related to smaller plot or sampling error.3 Sex pheromone in paddy fieldThe effects of Sex Pheromone for controlling rice stem borer were studied by basin traps and triangular trap, the density of traps were three per 667m2. Moth quantities attracted changed with the type of rice and the weather, the overall moth quantities was very small(0.35N/pot/day), resulting in control effects fluctuations between 26.23% and 61.88% in different test sites. Control range of sex pheromone was 2.5m from the lure. The effects on YSB, SI2009521A was better than SI20093241.At the same time, Sex pheromone control can increase the number of predatory insects, and there were obvious advantages in the main parameters of arthropod community.4 Frequency-oscillated light in paddy fieldControl effect of the light trapping had been studied with the Frequency-oscillated light, density of 150 m/light, the results show that the trapping moths were larger,26.2N /light/night for YSB, ratio of male and female was 1.51:1, the average rate of fecundity was 20.7 percent; in Ezhou, the total trapping moths of three lights for SSB were 1185 N, sex ratio was 5.24:1, The average rate of fecundity were 21.68 perceent; Dangyang, the total trapping moths of three lights for SSB were 7886 N, sex ratio for the second generation and the third generation was 1.86:1 and 1.75:1, the average rate of fecundity were 21.43 percent and 25.05 percent. the trapping efficiency of female moths was better than male moths. Eggs redueced from 53.53% and 77.98%, compared with the control, control effects were betten than 60 percent, the range of control was 30-50m from the position of FLT.Trapping zones can increase the number of predators, reduce the number of herbivores, the main parameters of arthropod community were inconsistent with with the control.5IPM in paddy fieldThe trial mainly conducted in Ezhou and Dangyang, various single control measurs were combined for controlling SSB, results showed that integrated zone can not only reduce the occurrence and damage of SSB, reduce the eggs above 50 percent, the borer damage was lower 2 percent, control effects fluctuateed between 38.77% and 82.21%, increased yield (15.8 percent for early rice and 7.53 percent for later rice, but also can reduce uses and frequency the pesticide, protect the ecological environment, then ecological control has played a role.6 Effects of transgenic insect-resistance rice on arthropod communities in paddy fieldsDominant groups of arthropod functional groups between Bt and control rice fields is basically the same:dominant groups of herbivorous insects Including the rice leaffoller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis of Pyralidae and the white planthopper and brown planthopper of Delphacidae; parasitic insects were mostly Muscidae, Braconidae and Ichneumonidae; spiders had absolute advantage of predators; neutral insects wre mainly Culicidae and Chironomidae.There were no difference between transgenic rice fields and control fields in the composition and dominance of the four functional groups. The main parameters of arthropod community in addition to that species richness fluctuated between the inter-annual, there is no difference with the control in terms of another three parameters of Simpson’s index, Shannon-Winner index and evenness index. Bray-Curtis distance index of transgenic insect-resistancerice and the control field were small, so community similarity were high.In general the effects of transgenic insect-resistant rice on the field of arthropod communities were relatively small, there were no negative impact on arthropod community.Ddynamic changes of non-target insectsDelphacidae and Cicadellidae and main predatory spiders were basically the same between Bt rice control,as well as the composition of main predatory spider, though slight changes between inter-annual Transgenic rice shows no negative impact on non-target insects including Delphacidae and Cicadellidae and dominated predatory spiders.7 Resistance of rice stem borer to transgenic riceGenetically modified insect-resistant rice cultivation, whether the first year or continuous cultivation of a decade, had relatively high resistance levels, in the field or the net enclosures, natural or artificial pests, the amount of insects more or less. rate of borer damage was less than 1.5% and rate of leafroll wasless than 12.62%. But it also should be noted that Bt toxic protein would change in the expression on continuous cultivation, there were the trends that stripped stem borer may resistance to Bt rice under the certain selection pressure and certain degree of pest amounts.Those results showed that the agricultural control and Frequency- oscillated light can effectively reduce eggs, the effec of sex pheromone relucted due to various factors; chemical pesticides also had good effects and a lots of pesticides had been selected; Transgenic resistant rice had better control on stem borers and badly control onsucking pests. All the individual technical measures can reduce the number of herbivores, increase the number of predators, and no adverse effects on the arthropod community. Based on the evaluation results, the TPM was that:breeding resistant varieties and basing on agricultural control, giving natural enemies for biological control and using light trapping, combined with chemical pesticides.
        

防治水稻螟虫单项技术措施的评价及储备技术—转基因水稻对非靶标生物影响的研究

摘要10-13
Abstract13-16
第一章 文献综述17-30
    1.1 研究背景17-18
    1.2 害虫综合治理(IPM)18-19
    1.3 害虫防治的主要措施19-22
        1.3.1 植物检疫(plant quarantine)19-20
        1.3.2 农业防治(agricul control)20
        1.3.3 生物防治(biological control)20-21
        1.3.4 物理防治(physical control)21
        1.3.5 化学防治(chemical control)21-22
        1.3.6 二化螟性引诱剂的大面积应用22
    1.4 转基因作物种植概况和转基因水稻培育的发展历程22-24
        1.4.1 转基因作物种植概况22-23
        1.4.2 转基因水稻培育的发展历程23-24
    1.5 转基因作物的生态风险24-29
        1.5.1 基因漂流的风险25-26
        1.5.2 害虫对转基因作物的抗性26-27
        1.5.3 转基因抗虫植物对非靶标生物和生物多样性的影响27-28
        1.5.4 食品安全风险28-29
    1.6 目的和意义29
    1.7 主要技术路线29-30
第二章 农业防治对螟虫的田间防效30-37
    2.1 材料和方法30-33
        2.1.1 水稻品种30
        2.1.2 试验地点30
        2.1.3 主要技术措施30-31
        2.1.4 调查方法31-32
        2.1.5 分析方法32-33
    2.2 结果与分析33-35
        2.2.1 落卵量33
        2.2.2 螟害率33-34
        2.2.3 节肢动物群落34-35
    2.3 讨论35-37
第三章 8种药剂对三化螟的田间防效37-46
    3.1 材料与方法37-38
        3.1.1 供试材料37-38
        3.1.2 试验地点38
        3.1.3 试验处理与设计38
        3.1.4 调查方法38
        3.1.5 分析方法38
    3.2 结果与分析38-45
        3.2.1 螟害防治效果38-40
        3.2.2 功能团组成及其优势度40-41
        3.2.3 功能团内科的组成及其优势度分布41-43
        3.2.4 节肢动物群落主要参数43-44
        3.2.5 群落相似性44-45
    3.3 讨论45-46
第四章 几种药剂对二化螟的田间防效46-53
    4.1 材料与方法46-47
        4.1.1 供试材料46-47
        4.1.2 试验地点47
        4.1.3 试验处理与设计47
        4.1.4 调查方法47
        4.1.5 分析方法47
    4.2 结果与分析47-51
        4.2.1 螟害率47-49
        4.2.2 节肢动物群落49-51
    4.3 讨论51-53
第五章 螟虫性引诱剂田间防效53-60
    5.1 材料与方法53-54
        5.1.1 供试材料53
        5.1.2 试验地点53-54
        5.1.3 诱捕器设置54
        5.1.4 调查方法54
        5.1.5 分析方法54
    5.2 结果与分析54-59
        5.2.1 诱蛾量54-56
        5.2.2 螟害率56-57
        5.2.3 节肢动物57-59
    5.3 讨论59-60
第六章 频振灯对螟虫田间防效60-67
    6.1 材料与方法60-61
        6.1.1 供试材料60-61
        6.1.2 试验地点61
        6.1.3 频振灯的设置61
        6.1.4 调查方法61
        6.1.5 分析方法61
    6.2 结果与分析61-66
        6.2.1 诱蛾量61-62
        6.2.2 落卵量62-63
        6.2.3 螟害率和卷叶率63-65
        6.2.4 节肢动物65-66
    6.3 讨论66-67
第七章 综合防治田间试验效果67-72
    7.1 材料和方法67-68
        7.1.1 水稻品种67
        7.1.2 试验地点67
        7.1.3 试验设计67
        7.1.4 试验材料67
        7.1.5 调查方法和分析方法67-68
    7.2 结果与分析68-71
        7.2.1 诱蛾量的变化68-69
        7.2.2 落卵量69-70
        7.2.3 螟害率70-71
    7.3 讨论71-72
第八章 转基因抗虫水稻对田间节肢动物群落的影响72-90
    8.1 材料和方法72-74
        8.1.1 水稻品种72
        8.1.2 试验设计72
        8.1.3 田间管理72-73
        8.1.4 取样和调查73
        8.1.5 功能团的划分与多样性分析73-74
        8.1.6 节肢动物群落分析74
    8.2 结果与分析74-88
        8.2.1 节肢动物功能团类群组成及数量74-80
        8.2.2 功能团内科组成及其优势度80-81
        8.2.3 群落参数及时间动态81-87
        8.2.4 节肢动物群落相异性87-88
    8.3 讨论88-90
第九章 转基因抗虫水稻对非靶标害虫和蜘蛛类的影响90-98
    9.1 材料和方法90
        9.1.1 水稻品种90
        9.1.2 试验设计和调查方法90
        9.1.3 昆虫种类调查和数据分析90
    9.2 结果与分析90-97
        9.2.1 飞虱类90-91
        9.2.2 叶蝉类91-92
        9.2.3 蜘蛛类92-97
    9.3 讨论97-98
第十章 转基因水稻对螟虫抗性的初步研究98-104
    10.1 材料和方法98-99
        10.1.1 水稻品种98
        10.1.2 田间网罩试验98
        10.1.3 田间接虫试验98-99
        10.1.4 调查方法99
        10.1.5 Bt毒蛋白测定99
    10.2 结果与分析99-102
        10.2.1 螟害率和卷叶率99-102
        10.2.2 室内测定102
    10.3 讨论102-104
第十一章 结论和展望104-109
    11.1 结论104-107
    11.2 展望107-109
参考文献109-126
附图与说明126-129
致谢129
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