输变电工程水土流失规律研究及防治对策

A Study on Soil and Water Loss Lows and Control Counermeasures of Power Transmission Project

作者: 专业:资源环境信息工程 导师:丁树文 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

power transmission project, water and soil loss, control countermeasure

        21世纪初期20年是我国进行全面建设小康社会的重要历史时期。”我国经济社会快速发展,能源消耗日益增加,而我国重要的电源基地与负荷中心的距离一般都在800~3000 km,这必将带动超输变电工程的大量建设。研究输变电工程水土流失特点、成因、规律并据此提出防治对策,有助于在以后的输变电建设过程中以较小的投入获取较大的水土保持效益,为建设和谐社会和环境友好型社会服务。输变电工程是输送能源的重要通道,一般空间跨度较大。影响工程水土流失的相关因素如地形地貌、土壤、地质、植被、降雨等也相应的发生着变化。本文从影响工程水土流失的相关因素出发,在线路区选取38个塔基研究点位、13个变电工程边坡点位、1个弃渣场点位和1个围墙内施工点位,通过在监测过程获得的点位地貌、地面原始坡度、坡向、土壤类型、土层厚度、基岩类型、植被覆盖度、弃渣量、渣体组成、基础形式、水土流失量等相关信息,并以研究区基本气象、地形地貌、土壤、地质资料为基础,探讨输变电工程建设过程中的水土流失规律,主要内容包括工程水土流失成因,工程水土流失特点,工程主要水土流失形式,降雨、土壤、基岩,地形地貌对项目水土流失的影响,项目水土流失时序特征,项目水土流失空间特征。从管理、工程设计、水土保持措施三个层面提出防治对策。管理对策包括:加大宣传力度,增强水土保持法制观念;切实加强执法队伍的正规化建设;加大执法力度,认真落实“三同时”制度。工程设计对策包括:尽量避开陡坡及不良地质地段;减少线路走廊宽度;合理确定基面范围;高低腿杆塔设计;高跨树林;设计深埋基础,减少基础降基;优先考虑使用原状土基础;使用塔脚架加高主柱基础;基面挖方需按规定要求放坡。水土保持措施包括:工程措施;植被措施。通过三个层面的防治对策以期将输变电工程建设对环境造成的危害降到最低,对其它开发建设项目的水土流失防治有一定的借鉴意义。
    20 years of the early 21st century is an important historical period of building a well to China. China’s economic and social develop rapid, energy consumption increases every day. In China, important power bases in the distance of load centers are generally in the 800~3000 km, this will bring a large number of super-power transmission project construction. Studying on water and soil loss’characteristics, causes, laws of transmission and distribution project and accordingly proposing control measures, which helps in the process of building the future transmission and distribution project use less investment to get larger soil and water conservation benefits, and which services to build a harmonious society and environment-friendly society.Transmission and distribution project is an important channel of energy transmission, and which span a larger space generally. Factors affecting soil erosion of projects such as topography, soil, geology, vegetation, rainfall, also corresponding changes.38 Pole tower points in the line,13 slope points of substation project, a spoil-site spaces and a construction point within the wall are selected.Use the point and topography, the original ground slope, aspect and soil type, soil thickness, bedrock type, vegetation cover, debris, slag body composition, basic forms of soil erosion and other related information, and basic meteorological data, terrain data, soil data, geological data of the project area to investigate soil erosion laws of power transmission project which be in the process of construction.Major engineering projects including reasons of soil erosion, soil erosion features,engineering major form of soil erosion, affect of project area rainfall on soil erosion, project timing characteristics of soil erosion, project spatial characteristics of soil erosion, affect of project area soil and bedrock on soil erosion,topography effects of project area soil erosion.The management, engineering design, soil and water conservation measures are proposed of control measures in three levels.Management measures include stepping up publicity to enhance the concept of soil and water conservation law, enforcing regularization of the team and enforcing Intensify of the law to seriously implement the "three simultaneous" system. Engineering measures include trying to avoid steep slopes and bad geological section, reducing the width of the line corridor, determining a reasonable range of base level, designinghigh and low leg pole tower, crossing forest highly, designing deep foundation and reducing the basis of lower base, using undisturbed soil basis priority, using tower tripod base to heighten the main columnd and requiring base surface slope by relevant provisions.water and soil conservation measures include: engineering measures;vegetation measures. Three levels of control measures are used to reduce the harm of the environment which be caused by power transmission engineering as much as possible. There is a reference intended to Soil Erosion Control of Other development projects
        

输变电工程水土流失规律研究及防治对策

摘要6-7
ABSTRACT7-8
1 绪论9-15
    1.1 输变电工程发展趋势9
    1.2 输变电工程建设对水土流失及生态环境影响9-10
    1.3 开发建设项目水土流失研究进展10-13
    1.4 输变电工程水土流失研究概况13-14
    1.5 研究的目的和意义14-15
2 项目及研究区概况15-27
    2.1 项目概况15-19
        2.1.1 工程特性15-16
        2.1.2 变电工程概况16
        2.1.3 输电线路工程概况16-17
        2.1.4 输电线路常用基础形式17-19
    2.2 研究区概况19-27
        2.2.1 自然地理概况19-22
            2.2.1.1 地形地貌、地质19-20
            2.2.1.2 水文气象20-21
            2.2.1.3 土壤21
            2.2.1.4 植被21-22
        2.2.2 社会经济概况22
        2.2.3 工程进展22-23
        2.2.4 研究区水土流失现状23-27
3 研究内容与方法27-37
    3.1 研究内容27
    3.2 研究方法27-36
        3.2.1 研究方法27-28
        3.2.2 研究点位的选取28-31
            3.2.2.1 选取原则28-29
            3.2.2.2 研究点位的基本情况29-31
        3.2.3 研究点位观测项目及方法31-36
    3.3 技术路线36-37
4 水土流失规律研究37-54
    4.1 工程水土流失成因37-38
    4.2 工程水土流失特点38-39
    4.3 工程主要水土流失形式39-40
    4.4 水土流失影响因素分析40-51
        4.4.1 降雨对研究区水土流失的影响40-47
            4.4.1.1 研究区降雨侵蚀力时空特征40-43
            4.4.1.2 降雨侵蚀力特征对计算工程土壤侵蚀量的影响43-47
        4.4.2 土壤、基岩状况对工程水土流失的影响47-48
        4.4.3 地形地貌对工程水土流失的影响48-49
        4.4.4 塔基基础形式对工程水土流失的影响49-51
    4.5 工程水土流失时序特征51-52
    4.6 工程水土流失空间特征52-54
5 工程水土流失防治对策54-64
    5.1 管理对策54
    5.2 工程设计中防治对策54-59
    5.3 水土保持措施59-64
        5.3.1 输电线工程水土保持工程措施59-61
        5.3.2 输电线工程水土保持植被措施61-62
        5.3.3 变电工程水土保持工程措施62-63
        5.3.4 变电工程水土保持植物措施63-64
6 结论64-66
参考文献66-73
致谢73
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