自我和谐和时间维度上大学生内隐、外显自我评价的关系

The Relationgship between Explict and Implict Temporal Self-Appraisals and Self Consistency and Congruence of College Students

作者: 专业:应用心理学 导师:王瑶 年度:2011 学位:硕士  院校: 河南大学

Keywords

self consistency and congruence, self-appraisals, EAST

        党的十六届六中全会首次提出了社会和谐和心理和谐的关系,并对心理和谐的重要性进行了阐述。大学生是国家的未来,其心理和谐状况更应该受到我们的关注。而自我在时间维度上包括过去自我、现在自我和未来自我,一个人的心理和谐与否与其在时间维度上的自我评价即自我概念与经验的一致性密切相关,所以考察个体在时间维度上自我评价的一致性与连续性对于更好地认知其自我和谐状态,促进其心理健康有着重要的作用。本研究运用自我和谐问卷首先考察了大学生自我和谐的特点,并对自我和谐在性别、专业、年级、家庭居住地上的人口学差异进行了比较,通过问卷筛选出高低自我和谐组大学生被试,并在外显和内隐两个层面上采用实验的方法对高低自我和谐组大学生时间维度上的自我评价的特点和差异进行了探讨,得出了以下结论:第一、大学生的自我和谐程度整体上呈现出不平衡的状况,有15.38%的大学生处于低自我和谐状态,这些学生较容易产生心理问题。自我和谐及其三个维度在性别、专业、年级上不存在显著的差异,在家庭居住地上存在着显著的差异,城市大学生的自我和谐程度要显著高于农村大学生,农村大学生的自我灵活性较差,并表现出更加刻板的行为。第二、无论是外显还是内隐层面,高自我和谐组对于自我的评价总体积极向上,对于未来自我有更稳定更积极的评价,且更多的把消极的自我评价赋予过去,存在时间上由远及近以至于未来越来越积极的趋势。第三、低自我和谐组外显层面上时间维度的自我评价在总体上是积极的;在内隐层面上的时间自我评价整体消极,在时间维度上呈现混乱、不协调的趋势。外显与内隐层面上对于过去自我均表现出低自我和谐者自我与经验的不一致;而对于现在自我的认知更为消极且并不稳定。低自我和谐组在外显层面上的自我评价显著低于高自我和谐组,并且内隐层面呈现出和高自我和谐组不一致的趋势。
    The Sixth Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee firstly put forward the relations of harmonious society and self consistency and congruence and expound the importance of self consistency and congruence.College students are the future of our country.we should pay more attention to their self consistency and congruence.In time dimension, the ego includes past self,self and future self,whether he is self consistency and congruence or not is closely related to the consistency of his self-concept and experience in temporal self-appraisals.So the examing of the consistency and continuity of temporal self-appraisals is playing an important role on for cognitiving the harmonious state and their mental health.The research use SCCS firstly examines the characteristics of college student self consistency and congruence and compare the differences among genders,majors,grades and family residence.By using the questionnaire,we sift the subjects of high and low scores and use implicit and explicit mearsures to analysis the characteristics and differences in temporal self-appraisals of subjects with high and low self consistency and congruence in time dimension.The study reaches conclusions as follows:Firstly,College students’s states of self consistency and congruence show unbalance,15.38% of college students are in poor condition in self consistency and congruence.these students are apt to get mental problems.There is no differences in the self consistency and congruence of different genders,majors,grades.but significant difference in different family residences.The self consistency and congruence degree of students from city is significantly higher than the degree of students from country.The students from country show poorer self flexibility and more stereotypical behavior.Secondly,Both explict and implicit attitude,the group of high self consistency and congruence set more positive appraisals on self and give future self a more stable and more active appraisal and more probably put negative self-appraisals on the past self,existing the trend that in time dimension from far to near, it becomes more and more positive in the future.Thirdly,on the whole,in time dimension,low self consistency and congruence groups show positive self-appraisals in explict attitude and negative self-appraisals in implicit attitude, self-appraisals is in an inconsistent state.Both in explicit and implicit attitudes for the past self low self consistency and congruence groups all show that self-concept is inconsistent with experience, and more negative and unstable.In explict attitude,low self consistency and congruence group’s self-appraisals significantly lower than the high self consistency and congruence groups and show different trend with high self consistency and congruence groups in implicit attitude.
        

自我和谐和时间维度上大学生内隐、外显自我评价的关系

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
引言11-12
第一部分 文献综述12-22
    1 时间维度上的自我评价概述12-18
        1.1 时间维度上自我评价的内涵12
        1.2 时间维度上自我评价的理论12-13
        1.3 时间维度上自我评价的影响因素13-18
    2 自我和谐的研究综述18-22
        2.1 自我和谐的内涵18-19
        2.2 自我和谐的测量工具19
        2.3 自我和谐的相关实证研究19-22
第二部分 问题提出22-24
    1 问题提出22
    2 研究意义22-24
        2.1 理论意义22-23
        2.2 现实意义23-24
第三部分 实证研究24-42
    研究一 大学生自我和谐的整体状况描述24-27
        1 研究目的24
        2 研究假设24
        3 研究方法24-25
            3.1 被试24
            3.2 测量工具24-25
            3.3 施测程序25
            3.4 数据处理25
        4 结果与分析25-27
            4.1 大学生自我和谐总体状况25
            4.2 不同人口学变量大学生自我和谐的差异25-26
            4.3 讨论26-27
    研究二 高低自我和谐组大学生时间维度上自我评价在外显层面的差异比较27-34
        1 研究目的27
        2 研究假设27
        3 研究方法27-29
            3.1 被试27
            3.2 实验材料27-28
            3.3 实验设计28
            3.4 实验程序28-29
            3.5 数据处理29
        4 结果与分析29-32
            4.1 高自我和谐组时间维度上自我评价效价词反应等级的差异29-30
            4.2 高自我和谐组时间维度上自我评价反应时的差异30-31
            4.3 低自我和谐组时间维度上自我评价效价词反应等级的差异31
            4.4 低自我和谐组时间维度上自我评价反应时的差异31-32
        5 讨论32-34
    研究三 高低自我和谐组大学生时间维度上自我评价在内隐层面的差异比较34-42
        1 研究目的34
        2 研究假设34
        3 研究方法与过程34-36
            3.1 实验被试34
            3.2 实验设计34-35
            3.3 实验材料与方法35
            3.4 实验程序35-36
            3.5 数据转换处理36
        4 结果与分析36-40
            4.1 高自我和谐组在不同效价条件下对各时间自我词判断反应时统计分析36-37
            4.2 高自我和谐组在不同效价条件下对各时间自我词判断错误率统计分析37-39
            4.3 低自我和谐组在不同效价条件下对各时间自我词判断反应时统计分析39
            4.4 低自我和谐组不同效价条件下对各时间自我词判断错误率的统计分析39-40
        5 讨论40-42
第四部分 综合讨论42-48
    1 大学生自我和谐状况的整体情况42
        1.1 大学生自我和谐状况的描述性统计及其人口统计学差异42
    2 高低自我和谐组大学生内隐、外显时间维度上自我评价的差异42-45
        2.1 外显层面高低自我和谐组大学生时间维度上自我评价的比较43
        2.2 内隐层面高自我和谐组大学生时间维度上自我评价的比较43-45
    3 应用及建议45-48
        3.1 从心理咨询角度探讨对低自我和谐者的干预研究45-46
        3.2 促进大学生自我和谐的建议46-48
第五部分 结论与展望48-50
    1 结论48
    2 研究创新之处48-49
    3 不足与展望49-50
参考文献50-54
附录54-60
致谢60-61
攻读学位期间发表的学术论文目录61-62
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