水基清防蜡剂的研制与应用

Research and Application of Water Basing Paraffin Removing/Inhibiting Agent

作者: 专业:化工工艺 导师:胡永琪 年度:2011 学位:硕士  院校: 河北科技大学

Keywords

High water cut oil wells, water basing paraffin removing/inhibiting agent, surfactants, adhesion decrease

        随着国内大多数油田开采已进入中后期,油井采出液已进入高含水阶段。传统的油基清防蜡剂由于密度较低,采用现在的加药工艺清防蜡剂很难沉于井底,加药后无法达到预期的效果,从而影响其效率的发挥。本研究针对高含水期油井的清防蜡问题,研制出了一种新型高效的水基清防蜡剂。水基清防蜡剂的主要作用机理为:(一)具有高渗透性和强分散性的表面活性剂能够帮助清防蜡剂渗入结构松散的蜡晶缝隙中,降低油蜡的界面张力;(二)表面活性剂分子可穿透蜡的结构,使蜡分子之间的结合力减弱,破坏蜡单个分子和管壁间的粘结力,从而导致蜡晶拆散而分散于油流中,随采出液流出油井,从而起到清蜡作用;(三)表面活性剂易被吸附在金属的表面,使结蜡表面反转为亲水表面,阻止非极性的蜡晶在金属表面的吸附和沉积,使蜡块与井壁的粘附力减弱,有利于蜡的脱落,达到有效防蜡的目的。本项目研制的水基清防蜡剂以水为分散介质,复配以不同功能的表面活性剂、共溶剂、稳定剂、碱等物质,不但具有清防蜡作用,还有降低原油粘度,改善原油流动性的效果。而且温度越低,加入水基清防蜡剂的原油粘度降低幅度越大。试验结果表明,水基清防蜡剂防蜡率为47.8%,远高于行业标准SY/T 6300-1997《采油用清防蜡通用技术条件》对水基清防蜡剂防蜡率≥15%的技术指标,能够有效解决高含水期油井的清防蜡问题。本课题分析了原油含水量、地层温度和加药量对水基清防蜡剂防蜡效果的影响,研究了水基清防蜡剂的应用条件和范围。
    The productions of most oil fields have been in the middle-last development time in China, and accordingly the oil well produced liquid has been in the high water content period. Just because of this, the popular and widely used oil soluble paraffin removing/ inhibiting agent could not achieve the expected effect due to its low density. Aiming at this problem, a new water basing paraffin removing/inhibiting agent is developed for downhole use in high water cut oil wells in this study.The mechanisms of the water basing paraffin removing/inhibiting agent were as the followings:Firstly, surfactants with high permeability and strong dispersibility could assist the agent infiltrating into the gap of paraffin crystal with loose structure, thereby decreased the surface tension of paraffin. Secondly, the molecules of surfactants could permeate through paraffin, which decreased the binding force among paraffin molecules and destroyed the adhesion between paraffin and tube wall, therefore paraffin crystals were disassembled and flowed out of oil well with liquid fluid. Finally, surfactants were easily absorbed on the surface of metal, which reversed the surface of paraffin deposit to its hydrophilic surface, correspondingly prevented the adsorption and precipitation of non-polar paraffin crystal on metal surface and decreased the adhesion between paraffin with tube wall, consequently attained the paraffin removing/inhibiting aim.In present study, the water basing paraffin removing/inhibiting agent was synthesized by using water as dispersing media adding surfactants with different functions, cosolvents, stabilizers, alkali, etc. It could not only remove and inhibit paraffin, but also reduce crud oil viscosity and improve the flow ability. Furthermore, the lower the temperature was the lower crud oil viscosity by adding the water basing paraffin removing /inhibiting agent. The results showed that the percent of paraffin inhibition was 47.8%, which was much higher than 15%specified by industry standard of SY/T 6300-1997 "General Specification for Paraffin Removing/Inhibiting Agent in Oil Production".The present study analyzed the influence of water content in crud oil, formation temperature and the agent application dosage on the wax control effect of water basing paraffin removing/inhibiting agent, and pointed out the possible operating conditions and scope of the agent.
        

水基清防蜡剂的研制与应用

摘要4-5
Abstract5
第1章 绪论8-19
    1.1 前言8-9
    1.2 油井中的石蜡及结蜡机理9-12
    1.3 影响油井结蜡的主要因素12-13
    1.4 油井清防蜡技术简介13-14
    1.5 化学药剂清防蜡技术简介14-17
        1.5.1 油基清防蜡剂15
        1.5.2 乳液型清防蜡剂15-16
        1.5.3 水基清防蜡剂16-17
    1.6 水基清防蜡剂国内外研究现状及分析17-18
    1.7 本文研究目的及内容18-19
第2章 实验内容19-24
    2.1 实验准备19-20
        2.1.1 实验药品19
        2.1.2 实验仪器19-20
        2.1.3 玻璃仪器20
    2.2 实验方法20-24
        2.2.1 凝点测定20-21
        2.2.2 粘度测定21
        2.2.3 防蜡率测定21-24
第3章 原油动态结蜡的影响因素24-32
    3.1 原油物性与结蜡规律研究24-26
    3.2 环境温度对结蜡影响的研究26-28
    3.3 原油流速对结蜡影响的研究28-29
    3.4 原油含水量对结蜡影响的研究29-31
    3.5 本章小结31-32
第4章 水基清防蜡剂的制备32-43
    4.1 简介32
    4.2 室内配方的研制32-39
        4.2.1 表面活性剂的筛选32-36
        4.2.2 共溶剂36-37
        4.2.3 稳定剂37
        4.2.4 碱37
        4.2.5 水基清防蜡剂配方37-38
        4.2.6 室内评价结果38
        4.2.7 水基清防蜡剂的优点38-39
    4.3 水基清防蜡剂防蜡效果的影响因素39-40
        4.3.1 含水量对防蜡效果的影响39
        4.3.2 不同地层温度对防蜡效果的影响39-40
        4.3.3 加药量对防蜡效果的影响40
    4.4 水基清防蜡剂降粘效果研究40-41
    4.5 本章小结41-43
第5章 水基清防蜡剂的生产与应用43-46
    5.1 水基清防蜡剂的生产43-44
        5.1.1 水基清防蜡剂生产流程设计及注意事项43
        5.1.2 水基清防蜡剂效益估算43-44
    5.2 水基清防蜡剂应用方法44
    5.3 水基清防蜡剂现场应用效果44-46
结论46-48
参考文献48-51
致谢51-52
个人简历52
        下载全文需58


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