“变”与“不变”:汪曾祺小说创作的“四十年代”与“八十年代”

Variation and Invariance:Wang Zengqi’s Novel Creation in the 40s and the 80s

作者: 专业:中国现当代文学 导师:韦丽华 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 安徽大学

Keywords

bitterness and loneliness, beauty of human emotions, beauty of human nature, folk sentiments, tragic consciousness

        汪曾祺一生的小说创作经历了 40年代、50-70年代、80-90年代三个时期,其中第二个时期只有三篇作品,作品最多、影响最大的是40年代和80年代。从作品的思想、内容、风格、叙事、结构上看,这两个时期创作的变化,但始终没改变的是作家一直用真挚的情感书写普通人有滋有味的平凡生活,对平常人生的高歌和赞扬,对命运无常的悲悯与同情。本文在学者们从语言、风格、结构、文体、叙事、题材、内容等不同角度研究汪曾祺作品的基础上,从创作的两个重要时期40年代和80年作品风格的变化着手,分析其变化产生的原因以及两个时期创作的延续和发展,试图还原一个真实完整的汪曾祺。笔者在汲取前人理论研究的基础上,结合对文本的感悟体会进行分析、梳理两个时期作品,挖掘社会的变迁和作者的人生阅历对其小说创作风格演变的影响,并以此为着手点纵向分析作家两个时期作品的延续和发展。本文力图抓住两个时期小说的一些特点,撇开常人对其文本表层静态的形式特征描述,深入到形式背后变化的根源。第一部分主要从汪曾祺西南联大的大学生活和毕业初期在上海北京一时无法立足时忧伤孤独情感入手分析其40年代小说创作,展现作家的家庭出身、人生阅历促成汪曾祺走上创作道路并形成初期创作风格。第二部分主要分析80年代已年逾花甲的汪曾祺重回文坛,完全抛开40年代创作时的苦闷寂寞风格,不再对笔下人物进行挑剔嘲谑,反而对人物充满温情与尊重。正是基于对人物的温情使他在80年代开始大唱人情美、人性美的赞歌,传达对和谐健康生活的向往和追求。本文并通过对作家边缘化的叙事和作家豁达开朗人生态度的分析来对此期的创作进行研究。第三部分从作者在80年代叙事人称的转变和旧作重写来分析两个时期创作的变化以及在变化过程中作者人生的态度。不论是作品叙事人称的转变还是旧作重写,都可以看出作者对世事的淡薄,对人性美好的肯定,对生命的尊重,体现出作家创作心态的成熟。第四、五部分论述作家从40年代苦闷压抑的书写到80年代人情美、人性美的赞歌的转变的过程中,曾经几度变化超越,但始终没有改变的是作家对中国传统文化的继承和发展,并用一生的努力去追寻。本部分从叙事方式、求异观、民间意识、悲剧意识四个方面具体分析了汪曾祺两个创作的延续性。汪曾祺从现代到当代,一生创作道路几经周折转变,他一直在追求着变化和超越,并在80年代探索出一条属于自己的创作道路。本文主要探寻作家两个创作重要时期的“变”与“不变”,并深入挖掘作者因时代和个人际遇的不同对小说创作的影响,以此来研究其小说创作整体观,试图还原一个真实完整的汪曾祺。
    Wang Zengqi’s novel creation in his life went through three periods,including the 40s,the 50s-70s,the 80s-90s.There were only three works in the second period.In 40s and 80s,he created a large number of influential works.It can be seen that the writer’s creation was interrupted.From the content,style and narrative structure of the works,the creation of each period was constantly changing.But the only thing that did not change is that the writer wrote about the tasty life of ordinary people with sincere feelings,a high song and praise for the ordinary life,pity and sympathy for fates.This article breaks through the scholars’ study of Wang Zengqi’s works from different perspectives,such as language,style,structure,narrative,subject matter and content,starts with the change of the style of the works created in 40s and 80s,analyzes the cause of the change and the continuity and development of creative style and tries to restore a true and complete Wang Zengqi.On the basis of previous studies,combining with the experience of the texts,the author combed the important works in the two periods and explored the influence of social changes and the author’s life experience on the evolution of his novel style.In this article,the general description of the formal features of the static surface of the texts is put aside,and the root of the change behind the form is the basic research idea.The first part analyzes Wang Zengqi’s sad and lonely feelings from his life in southwest Joint University to his early graduation period when he temporarily unable to gain a foothold in Shanghai or Beijing because he didn’t get the diploma when graduated.This part truly and comprehensively displays that the family origin and life experience of Wang Zengqi has led to his road of creation and formed the early style of creation.The second part mainly analyzes Wang Zengqi through the years returning to the world of literature.He no longer made jokes on the characters in the works,and he was full of warmth and respect of the characters.In 80s,he began to sing the hymn of beauty of human nature and human emotions to convey his yearning and pursuit of a harmonious and healthy life.The article studies the change of the writer’s open-minded attitude to life and marginalized narration.The third part analyzes the author’s creative changes and the attitude of the author’s life in the process of change mainly from the change of the person’s appellation in the narrative and rewriting the old works in the 80s.It can be seen that the author’s indifference to the world,the affirmation of human nature and respect for life.It embodies the maturity of the writer’s creative attitude.The fourth and fifth parts discuss the process of transformation from the writer’s depressing writing in the 40s to the hymn about the beauty of human nature in the 80s.There have been several changes and transcendence,but the only thing that does not change is the author’s inheritance and development of Chinese traditional culture,which is pursued during the author’s lifetime.This part analyzes the continuity of Wang Zengqi’s creation in the two period from four aspects including narrative style,divergent view,folk consciousness,tragedy consciousness.This paper mainly explores the author’s "variable" and "invariable" in the creation of two important periods.We dig into the influence of the author’s novel creation caused by the changes of the times and the different experiences of the individual,study the whole view of his novel creation,try to be close to this kind of real old man.
        

“变”与“不变”:汪曾祺小说创作的“四十年代”与“八十年代”

摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
引言9-11
第一章 40年代苦闷和寂寞的书写11-17
    第一节 40年代的小说创作11-13
    第二节 西南联大的大学生活促成汪曾祺创作13-15
    第三节 上海——北京的孤寂生活加速汪曾祺创作15-17
第二章 80年代人情美人性美的赞歌17-25
    第一节 80年代小说创作17-21
    第二节 边缘化的叙事21-23
    第三节 豁达的人生态度23-25
第三章 80年代创作的转变25-30
    第一节 叙事人称的转变25-26
    第二节 旧作重写26-30
第四章 两个年代小说创作的不变30-41
    第一节 汪曾祺小说的叙述方式30-32
    第二节 汪曾祺小说的求异观32-34
    第三节 汪曾祺小说的民间意识34-36
    第四节 汪曾祺小说的悲剧意识36-41
第五章 中国传统文化对汪曾祺创作的影响41-44
结语44-45
参考文献45-46
致谢46-47
攻读学位期间公开发表的论文47
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