笛福小说中的双重主题与伦理困境

The Dual-motif and Ethical Dilemma in Defoe’s Novels

作者: 专业:比较文学与世界文学 导师:张建芳 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 兰州大学

Keywords

Daniel Defoe, novel, dual-motif, individual anxiety, ethical dilemma

        在丹尼尔·笛福的《鲁滨孙漂流记》、《摩尔·弗兰德斯》和《罗克珊娜》三部小说中,都明显存在着“财富敛聚”和“戒除贪欲”两个相互冲突的主题。一方面,小说着重描述了现代个体使用各种手段敛聚财富的过程,并以主要人物的成功致富为结局,对敛财取向予以肯定:鲁滨孙通过海外贸易、开垦种植园和经营孤岛,聚敛起来大量财富,并成功迈入了社会上层;摩尔利用一次次婚姻和婚外关系,乃至从事盗贼勾当,积攒了不菲的财产,并最终以之为资本成了富有的庄园主;罗克珊娜通过做人情妇而发家致富,幸运的她几经周折竟成为了富有且尊贵的伯爵夫人。另一方面,小说中经常出现的戒欲说教又对敛财手段和过程提出质疑,从而形成了与敛财取向相对立的道德取向:鲁滨孙经常谴责自己不听父命、执迷不悟、妄想发财,他希望人们能够满足于上帝的安排;摩尔声称讲述自己的经历完全是为了宣扬道德,她告诫人们要克制欲望;罗克珊娜谴责自己不守道德、堕落罪恶,并一再宣扬人们应该克制虚荣心和野心。显而易见,两个同时存在又相互质疑的主题使得小说成为分裂的文本。与此同时,两个主题内部也同样充满重重裂隙。敛财叙事方面,敛财者所获得财富的不正当出身,始终作为潜文本对成功致富的结果形成反讽;敛财者们对亲情的忽视,以及其故事讲述中家庭的缺场,从另一个层面构成了对敛财主题的质疑。戒欲主题方面,作为叙述者的主人公在其叙述过程中,常常存在着明显的前后矛盾,从而使他们的说教显得并不真诚可靠;叙述者的忏悔也因总是充满了功利性,而令其所传达的道德说教明显缺乏说服力。主题的对立和文本的分裂背后,有着文化的症结。简言之,这种分裂的背后是十七、十八世纪西方个体的价值焦虑与西方社会的伦理困境。双重主题是经济追求与宗教道德的双重回响。而处在清教运动落潮和资本主义渐渐壮大的历史过渡时期,使得笛福的时代出现了无法避免的价值混乱和困惑。这种价值困惑究其根由,则是新教伦理和资本主义发展演进的必然。因此,意义分裂的小说文本,就成了个体孤独和焦虑的表征,更成了资本主义文化从其源头处就存有的道德困境的表征。
    There are two obviously conflicting motifs of "accumulating wealth" and "abstaining from greed" in Robinson Crusoe,Moll Flanders and Roxana.On the one hand,the novels focus on the process of accumulating wealth by modern individuals,and take major characters’ successfully gaining wealth as ends,affirming choices of accumulating possessions.Robinson amassed a large amount of wealth through overseas trade,reclamation plantations,and management of islands,and he succeeded in stepping into the upper strata of the society.Moore used a combination of marriages and extramarital relations,and even engaged in thieves,accumulated valuable assets,and in the end,the capital became a rich manor;Roxana made a fortune through being a mistress;fortunately,she became a wealthy and honorable countess after many setbacks.On the other hand,frequent moralizing of giving up greed in novels,questions the means and process of amassing wealth,which forms the trend of moralizing opposite to the trend of accumulating wealth.Robinson often condemned himself for not listening to his father’s life,obsessed with ignorance,and fortune for prosperity.He hoped that people would be satisfied with God’s arrangement.Moore claimed that his experience was entirely for the promotion of morality,and she warned people to refrain from desires;Roxana condemned her not to Morality,depravity and sin,and repeatedly proclaiming that people should restrain vanity and ambition.Obviously,two motifs are co-existing and questioning each other,which turns novels into divisive texture.At the same time,the two themes are also filled with cracks.As for the narrative of collecting wealth,the improper origin of the wealth obtained by the collectors is always ironic as a result of successful enrichment;the neglect of the family members and the absence of family in their storytelling constitute another aspect which questioning the theme of accumulating wealth.In the theme of abstaining from desire,the protagonists as narrators often have obvious contradictions in their narrative process,which makes their preaching appear not to be sincere and reliable;the narrator’s repentance is always full of utilitarianism.The moral teachings it conveys are obviously lacking persuasion.Behind the split between the theme and the text,there is a cultural crux.In short,the dividing reflects anxiety of individual values in the 18 th and 19 th century as well as the ethical dilemma of western society.The dual theme is the dual echo of economic pursuits and religious ethics.However,in the historical transition period when the trend of the Puritanism and capitalism grew stronger,the era of Defoe appeared unavoidable confusion and confusion.The root cause of this value puzzle is the inevitable evolution of Protestant ethics and capitalist development.Therefore,the fictional text of fiction has become a manifestation of individual loneliness and anxiety.It has become a representation of the moral dilemma of capitalist culture from its source.
        

笛福小说中的双重主题与伦理困境

中文摘要3-4
Abstract4-5
绪论8-17
    一、国内外研究现状8-15
    二、选题目的和意义15-16
    三、论文结构梳理16-17
第一章 双重主题:“财富敛聚”与“戒除贪欲”17-24
    第一节 关于“敛财”的传奇故事17-21
        一、鲁滨孙的创业神话17-18
        二、婚姻冒险者与小偷18-20
        三、幸运情妇的敛财史20-21
    第二节 敛财者的道德说教21-24
        一、戒除贪欲21-22
        二、家庭责任22-24
第二章 分裂的文本:主题间及主题内部的矛盾24-32
    第一节 主题的相互对立24-25
    第二节 敛财叙事的裂隙25-28
        一、财富的秘密26-27
        二、家庭的缺场27
        三、苏珊的质问27-28
    第三节 无力的道德说教28-30
        一、不可靠的叙述28-29
        二、忏悔的功利性29-30
    第四节 叙述中的反讽30-32
第三章 意义分裂背后的文化焦虑32-41
    第一节 笛福时代的道德和经济32-37
        一、清教运动落潮与道德宽松化32-34
        二、资本主义的发展与个体焦虑34-35
        三、宗教道德与经济追求的冲突35-37
    第二节 现代西方的伦理困境37-41
        一、新教伦理的发展逻辑37-38
        二、个人主义的伦理困境38-41
结语41-44
参考文献44-47
在学期间研究成果47-48
致谢48
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