《名利场》中的作者插话研究

A Research on the Author’s Digression of Vanity Fair

作者: 专业:比较文学与世界文学 导师:张同胜 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 兰州大学

Keywords

Vanity Fair, digression, author, morality, publishing, tradition

        作者插话的大量运用是《名利场》一个十分重要的特质。这部小说中的插话大致可以分成谈论作者本人的小说观、谈论小说情节发展、谈论小说中的人物与社会现象以及抒发作者的感慨这四种类型。从产生的效果来看,插话对《名利场》而言举足轻重,它不仅承担着教益和引导读者的重任,而且还发挥着连缀、操纵故事情节的作用,而作者直接抒发情感的插话更是具有调控小说情感基调的意义。《名利场》中作者插话出现的原因,应该从两个不同的向度加以考察。一方面是横向的考察,即从萨克雷本人的小说观以及其所处时代的道德环境、出版环境、读者环境等方面,寻求《名利场》中运用插话可能的原因。首先,萨克雷将小说创作当成与读者推心置腹地谈天,故事只是为了谈话而服务,因而小说家完全可以插入自己的话来评点人物、针砭时弊,并以此来与读者共同探讨故事中的人物和情节,最终达到批判现实、警示读者的目的;其次,英国小说从来都有注重道德意义的传统,萨克雷所处的维多利亚时代尤其强调道德风尚,作家本人难免也受到了影响,因而,他有理由以更直接的方式在小说中显示自己的道德姿态;最后,当时的出版环境要求作家分期写作、按期交稿,这既使得作家可能会尝试用不相干的内容来拖泥带水地讲故事,也可能会使他们通过插话的运用有针对性地裁剪故事、粘连情节。另一方面则是纵向的考察,主要是从叙事文学传统的角度,寻求小说中运用插话可能的渊源。首先,作为小说文体奠基人的菲尔丁就在其小说创作中运用过插话,再向前追溯,《堂吉诃德》、流浪汉小说、伊索寓言等叙事作品中都或多或少存在着作者插话的因素,它们作为文学传统,均有可能影响到萨克雷的小说创作;其次,小说中的作者插话甚至可以追溯到古希腊戏剧中的“合唱”,它们同样是以第一人称或第二人称直接向观众说话,也同样具有评论故事情节、引导观众感受、进行道德训诫、营造感伤氛围等功能。
    The use of authors’ digression in the narrative process is a very important feature of Vanity Fair.The digressions in this novel can be roughly divided into four types: talking about the author’s own view of the novel,talking about the plot development of the novel,talking about the characters and social phenomena in the novel,and expressing the emotion of the author.There is no doubt that the interjection is of utmost importance to Vanity Fair.It not only bears the burden of teaching and guiding the readers,but also plays a role in linking and manipulating the storyline.The direct emotional interjection of the author can also regulate the emotional tone of the novel.The reasons for the author’s digression in Vanity Fair should be examined from two different perspectives.On the one hand,it is a horizontal investigation,that is to say,from the author’s view of novels,and the moral environment,publishing environment and reader environment of his time,to explore the reasons for the use of digression in Vanity Fair.First of all,Thackeray regarded the novel as a heartfelt talk with readers.The story serves only for the purpose of conversation.Therefore,the novelist can insert his own words to comment on the characters and criticize the shortcomings,and even use them to discuss with the readers the characters in the story.The plot finally reaches the goal of criticizing reality and alerting readers;Secondly,British novels have always attached importance to moral values.This was especially true of the Victorian era in which Thackeray was located,and the writer himself was inevitably influenced.Therefore,he had reason to show his morality in a more direct way.In the end,the publishing environment at that time required writers to write in phases and submit on time.This would make it possible for writers to try to tell stories with irrelevant content,or cause them to tailor the story and glue the plot in a targeted way by inserting the writer’s own words.On the other hand,it is a vertical inspection,mainly from the perspective of narrative literature tradition,seeking the origin of the possible use of interjection in Vanity Fair.First,Fielding,who was the founder of the novel’s style,used digressions in his fictions writings,and we also find that there are more or less same digression factors in the narrative works such as Don Quixote,picaresque novel,Aesop’s Fables.All these may affect Thackeray’s novel creation.Secondly,the author’s interjection in the novel can even be traced back to the “chorus” in ancient Greek plays.They also speak directly to the audience in the first person or the second person.They also have a commentary on the story,guide the audience,conduct moral training,and create Sentimental atmosphere and other functions.By systematically studying the phenomenon of author’s digression in Vanity Fair,it not only provides useful supplements for domestic and foreign related research,but also puts forward some problems that can be explored and studied,such as comparing the similarities and differences between Thackeray and Dickens’ use of digressions,comparing the digression of Vanity Fair with the storyteller’s voice of Chinese Storybook novel,or Inquiring the Mutual Penetration between the Two Styles of Drama and Fiction,and so on.
        

《名利场》中的作者插话研究

中文摘要3-4
英文摘要4-5
绪论7-20
    (一)《名利场》国内外研究现状7-16
    (二)何为“插话”及其相关研究16-19
    (三)论文的目的和意义19-20
一、《名利场》中的插话类型20-27
    (一)谈论作者小说观的插话20-21
    (二)谈论小说情节进展的插话21-23
    (三)谈论人物与社会的插话23-25
    (四)直接抒发作者情感的插话25-27
二、《名利场》中插话的作用27-34
    (一)引导读者的道德态度27-29
    (二)调动读者的阅读参与29-30
    (三)情节的缀联与裁剪30-31
    (四)感伤氛围的营造31-34
三、小说观、连载小说与插话34-40
    (一)小说是作者与读者的谈话34-36
    (二)维多利亚时代的道德36-37
    (三)读者与杂志连载小说37-40
四、《名利场》中插话的渊源40-46
    (一)叙事传统中的插话40-43
    (二)戏剧中的“合唱”与小说插话43-46
结语46-48
参考文献48-53
致谢53
        下载全文需58


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