《走钢丝的女孩》对维多利亚时期成长小说的继承与创新

The Girl Who Walked on Air’s Inheritance of and Deviation from the Victorian Bildungsroman

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:王庆勇 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 天津理工大学

Keywords

Bildungsroman, The Girl Who Walked on Air, inheritance, deviation, comparison

        艾玛·卡萝尔是萨默塞特郡的一名中学英语老师,她以优异的成绩毕业于巴斯泉大学青年文学硕士写作班。艾玛·卡萝尔又是一位优秀的英国儿童文学作家。英语教师的工作使得她可以深入研究儿童的阅读习惯。《走钢丝的女孩》是艾玛创作的第二部作品,讲述了在马戏团长大的小女孩路易坚持不懈追求梦想的故事。该小说在2015年获英国卡内基儿童文学奖提名。《走钢丝的女孩》出版于2014年7月,国内对该小说的研究很少。2016年6月,由王庆勇教授主持翻译的中文译本在国内出版后,该小说开始受到读者和批评家的关注。本论文将从成长小说的视角出发,通过该小说与三部维多利亚时期成长小说(《德伯家的苔丝》、《雾都孤儿》、《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》)的对比分析,探讨该小说对于传统成长小说的继承和创新,让读者对该小说有更深入的理解。论文由四个部分构成。引言部分主要介绍艾玛·卡萝尔与她的作品《走钢丝的女孩》以及国内外对该小说的研究现状、成长小说的内涵以及《走钢丝的女孩》与成长小说的联系。引言部分为整篇论文的展开作了理论铺垫,回顾了成长小说的发展历程,阐述了成长小说的内涵与传统叙事模式,认为《走钢丝的女孩》基本吻合传统成长小说的叙事模式:小主人公远离家乡,经过重重磨难,逐渐变得成熟。第二部分探讨的是该小说对于传统成长小说的继承,主要从五个方面进行讨论分析:1)对叙事结构原型的继承:主人公路易的成长过程基本符合传统成长小说的叙述模式:天真——诱惑——出走——困惑——考验——迷惘——顿悟——认识人生与自我;2)对个人身份与社会身份寻找的继承:路易离家出走追寻梦想是为了找到自己在社会中的正确位置并获得自由和认可;3)对女性主义表达的继承:生活在父权制社会,路易和她的妈妈一样受到男性的管制与压迫;4)对正反人物对比的继承:齐普乔先生与威尔比拉福德先生不同的性格形成鲜明的对比,他们对路易的成长都有重要影响;5)对现实主义的描写与批判的继承:维多利亚时期资本主义迅速发展,贫富差距拉大,百姓生活困苦不堪。小说通过对马戏团成员的描写表现出他们生活的艰辛。第三部分探讨的是该小说对于传统成长小说的创新,例如:1)对传统叙事结构原型的突破:传统成长小说中主人公大多是被迫出走,而路易选择离开家乡是为了勇敢追寻自己的梦想;2)对女性身份的突破:在父权制社会,女性充当着男性附属品的角色,但路易勇于反抗并获得了与男性演员平等的地位;3)对自我建构的突破:在传统成长小说中,主人公在成长路上会遇到一个或多个好心人的帮助,但路易与他们不同,她一直独立地在成长的道路上前行;4)对语言风格的突破:传统成长小说中,作者为了刻画贫苦百姓的艰难生活,语言充满了讽刺的意味。《走钢丝的女孩》始终使用简单易懂的语言去再现当时的生活;5)对主题表达的突破:该小说没有刻意地去批判或讽刺社会现实,而是非常重视梦想的地位,强调了对梦想主题的坚持。第四部分对整篇论文进行总结。一方面,《走钢丝的女孩》是一部典型的成长小说,它符合传统成长小说的叙事模式。另一方面,《走钢丝的女孩》又不同于传统的成长小说,它拥有独特的现代特点。小说语言简单易懂,故事情节紧密联系,在传统的基础上进行创新,创新中又不时表现出传统,拥有独特的魅力,从而深深地吸引着读者。
    Emma Carroll is an English teacher of middle school in Somerset.She has graduated with honors from Bath Spa University’s MA in Writing For Young People.At the same time,Emma Carroll is a great British writer for children.Being an English teacher has helped her to learn children’s reading habits.The Girl Who Walked on Air(abbreviated as The Girl)is Emma’s second work,describing the story of a little girl Louie who has grown up in a circus and pursues her dream with persistence and endeavor.The novel has been nominated for the 2015 Carnegie Medal.The Girl has been published in July 2014.So far,little research has been done about this novel in China.Professor Wang Qingyong is the first to translate the novel into Chinese.And in June 2016,the Chinese translation is published in China.After its publication,the novel gradually attracts attention from readers and critics.This paper will start from the perspective of Bildungsroman,and analyze The Girl’s inheritance of and deviation from the Victorian Bildungsroman in comparison with three representative works of Victorian Bildungsroman(Tess of the D’Urbervilles,Oliver Twist,The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn),with the aim to help readers have a better and deep understanding of the novel.The thesis consists of four parts.The introduction part mainly introduces the author Emma Carroll and her work The Girl,and the research status of the novel both at home and abroad.What’s more,this part will explain what the Bildungroman is as well as the relationship between The Girl and Bildungsroman.The introduction part paves the way for the whole paper,and reviews the development of Bildungsroman,expounding the connotation and traditional narrative mode of Bildungsroman.The paper believes that The Girl conforms to the traditional narrative pattern of Bildungsroman: the young protagonist leaves his/her home to a strange place.Suffered from various difficulties and hardships,the protagonist gradually becomes maturer and braver.The second part explores the novel’s inheritance of the traditional Bildungsroman,mainly from five aspects: 1)the inheritance of traditional narrative mode: the growth process of Louie conformed to the traditional narrative pattern of Bildungsroman: innocence—temptation—leaving home—confusion—ordeal—loss of innocence—epiphany—recognition of life and identity;2)the inheritance of individual and social identity seeking: Louie left homeland in order to find her proper place in the society and obtained her freedom and recognition;3)the inheritance of the expression of feminism: both Louie and her mother were controlled and oppressed by men under the patriarchal society;4)the inheritance of the contrast between the positive and negative characters: the different personalities of Mr Chipchase and Mr Wellbeloved shaped an obvious contrast,both of them had played an important part in Louie’s growth;5)the inheritance of the description and criticism of realism: capitalism developed rapidly in the Victorian period,and the gap between the rich and the poor was great.The descriptions of circus’ s performers revealed their hardship and poverty in daily life.The third part explores the novel’s deviation from the traditional Bildungsroman,for example: 1)the deviation from narrative structure: the protagonists in traditional Bildungsroman were always forced to flee by the circumstance,but Louie left her homeland on her own will in order to pursue her dream;2)the deviation from woman’s identity: in the patriarchal society,women were regarded as the accessories of men,but Louie bravely challenged and won her equality with male performers;3)the deviation from self-construction: the traditional protagonists were always helped by one or more kind people,Louie was different from them,she kept independent in the way of growth all the time;4)the deviation from language style: in traditional Bildungsroman,authors used acrid and ironic words to depict lower class’ s poor life.The Girl kept easy and comprehensible sentences to show poor conditions in that period;5)the deviation from theme expression: this novel had little words to criticize and satirize the social reality but attached great importance to the status of the dream,emphasizing the theme of the persistence of dream.The fourth part summarizes the whole paper.On the one hand,The Girl is a typical Bildungsroman,it conforms to the traditional narrative mode of Bildungsroman.On the other hand,The Girl is different from the traditional Bildungsroman,it has unique modern characteristics.The novel is easily understood,and every plot is closely connected.The novel deviates on the basis of the tradition,and it also expresses the tradition in the deviation.With the unique charm,the novel deeply attracts the readers.
        

《走钢丝的女孩》对维多利亚时期成长小说的继承与创新

摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
Chapter One Introduction10-16
    1.1 Emma Carroll and The Girl10-11
    1.2 Literature Review both at Home and Abroad11-13
    1.3 Bildungsroman and The Girl13-15
        1.3.1 Origin and Development of Bildungsroman13-14
        1.3.2 The Girl and Bildungsroman14-15
    1.4 The Purpose of the Study15-16
Chapter Two The Girl’s Inheritance of the Victorian Bildungsroman16-34
    2.1 The Representative Works of Victorian Bildungsroman16-17
    2.2 The Girl’s Inheritance17-34
        2.2.1 Inheritance of Traditional Narrative Pattern18-20
        2.2.2 Inheritance of the Theme of Seeking Personal and Social Identity20-23
        2.2.3 Inheritance of the Expression of Feminism23-27
        2.2.4 Inheritance of Contrast Method Between Positive and Negative Characters27-30
        2.2.5 Inheritance of the Criticism of Realism30-34
Chapter Three The Girl’s Deviation from the Victorian Bildungsroman34-47
    3.1 Narrative Pattern Deviation: from the Protagonists’ Being Forced to Their Bravely Pursuing the Dream34-36
    3.2 Female Identity Deviation: from the Accessories to Being Equal with Men36-38
    3.3 Self-construction Deviation: from Being Helped to Growing up Independently38-40
    3.4 Language Style Deviation: from Being Ironic to Being Simple and Comprehensible40-43
    3.5 Thematic Expression Deviation: Focusing Mainly on the Persistence of Dream43-47
Conclusion47-50
Bibliography50-52
发表论文和科研情况说明52-53
Acknowledgements53
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