论《金色笔记》中男女主人公对积极自由的追求与自我价值实现

On the Pursuit of Positive Freedm and Self-realized Value of the Heroine and Hero in the Golden Notebook

作者: 专业:外国语言文学 导师:史迹 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 西南交通大学

Keywords

Doris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, positive freedom, meaning of existence in society, self-realized value

        多丽丝·莱辛是英国著名的女作家,并于2007年获得诺贝尔文学奖。多丽丝·莱辛于1962年创作了《金色笔记》,全书由小说“自由女性”、黑、红、黄、蓝四本笔记以及“金色笔记”构成。国内外学者从不同角度研究了《金色笔记》的主题、结构和艺术形式。目前很多研究都从女性主义的视角,研究了女主人公安娜·伍尔夫对自由的追求,以及安娜的形象和自由女性的异化。然而,在《金色笔记》中,男主人公索尔·格林一方面对安娜的追求自由和实现自身价值具有重要的影响,另一方面索尔作为男性,也同样经历过痛苦、迷茫、追求自由,实现自我价值的人生经历。目前鲜有研究探讨这一主题。本文试图从二十世纪西方马克思主义文论角度,运用埃里希·弗洛姆关于社会、人的自由、博爱一系列哲学观念,探讨《金色笔记》中男女主人公安娜和索尔如何走出孤独、逃避现实的困境,寻求人的存在意义,实现自我价值的心理过程。弗洛姆将自由分为积极自由和消极自由。他认为真正的自由是实现积极自由。只有在无私的爱和自发性的工作的心理状态下,才能使人们获得积极自由。在作品中,男女主人公意识到自己处在消极自由状态后,曾尝试各种方式逃避精神困境,但都没有得到解脱,但他们一直在积极地探索。最后,他们终于积极地融入社会,在社会实践中发现了人的存在意义与自我价值的实现。本文的结论为:《金色笔记》中的女主人公安娜在现实中遭遇了感情、事业和信仰等各种挫折。这是由于社会偏见、男权对女性弱势的影响造成的。安娜通过自己的奋斗,得到了爱情,事业成功,最终投入社会实现了自我价值。然而,男主人公索尔在事业、信仰中遭遇挫折,同样陷入消极自由的状态。在现代社会中,男性作为自由的现代人一方面在社会上占主导地位,另一方面也同样需要爱、事业、信仰。这表明无论是女性还是男性,在现实中都会遇到各种问题,都会给人带来痛苦、困惑、孤独。索尔通过努力最终获得爱,事业成功,找到了信仰。这是因为人具有社会属性,人只有用无私的爱和自发性的工作,共同努力才能实现积极自由,融入社会,并在社会实践中实现自我价值。莱辛在《金色笔记》中表达的这一观念超越了女性主义反对男权、女性独尊的狭隘意义,体现了个人在社会中应该拥有的思想境界。这是《金色笔记》这部作品所隐含的主题之一。本文的研究意义在于从更宽阔地视角研究了女性在社会中存在意义与价值。在现代社会中,无论女性还是男性,在经济独立、思想平等的基础上,需要互相尊重、和谐相处,并以博爱为理念,积极融入社会,最终实现个人在社会中的存在的意义。
    Doris Lessing is a well-known British woman writer.She has won Nobel Prize for literature in 2007.The Golden Notebook is Lessing’s most-famous one which is made up of one novel Free Woman and five notebooks,Black Notebook,Red Notebook,Yellow Notebook,Blue Notebook,and Gold Notebook in 1962.Most of the scholars,both abroad and at home,study the themes,structure and artistic forms of The Golden Notebook from different kinds of perspectives.Present studies focus on Anna Woolf’s pursuit of freedom,and on Anna’s image and the alienation of free women from the perspective of feminist.However,in The Golden Notebook,the hero Saul Green also attaches an important role in Anna’s pursuit of freedom and achievement of self-value.Saul,as a man,also experiences the suffering and loses of himself and then pursues the freedom.At present,seldom studies discuss this problem.From the perspective of Western Marxist Criticism,this thesis tries to explore how Anna and Saul get rid of the loneliness and escape of reality and then seek for the meaning of human existence with Erich Fromm’s concepts of society,freedom of human,selfless love.Fromm holds the view that freedom can be divided into positive freedom and negative freedom.The real freedom is the achievement of positive freedom and it can be gained only by selfless love and creative work.In The Golden Notebook,the heroine Anna Woolf and hero Saul Green realize that they fall into the negative freedom and then try their best to escape from the spirit suffering.Finally,it turns out that only by entering to the society,can they find the meaning of human existence.Through the discussion,the conclusions are drawn as follows: Anna and Saul feel loneliness and frustrated when they cannot deal with the matters in emotional and career life.Superficially,this is caused by the traditional prejudice and the influence of paternal power over women.However,in modern society,women,as well as men,cannot avoid falling into the negative freedom.It clearly shows that both men and women face the loneliness and puzzlement due to all kinds of matters.Due to the human’s social attribute,only by selfless love and creative work,men and women together can achieve the positive freedom and self-value through socialpractice.This is one of the themes of The Golden Notebook.Lessing’s idea in The Golden Notebook surpasses the radical ideas concerning woman domination,which reflects the personal ideological realm in the society.The significance of this thesis is that no matter the men or women,based on the financial independence and ideological equality,need reciprocal respect and join in society,to serve the society by love,finally achieve the meaning of life and existence in the society.
        

论《金色笔记》中男女主人公对积极自由的追求与自我价值实现

摘要5-7
Abstract7-8
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION11-22
    1.1 Brief Introduction to Doris Lessing and The Golden Notebook11-15
    1.2 Literature Review15-20
        1.2.1 Study Abroad15-17
        1.2.2 Study at Home17-19
        1.2.3 Summary19-20
    1.3 Purpose, Significance and Structure of the Thesis20-22
CHAPTER TWO WESTERN MARXISM ANDERICH FROMM’S THEROY22-36
    2.1 Western Marxism…22-24
    2.2 Introduction on Erich Fromm24-25
    2.3 Erich Fromm’s Ideas on Freedom25-36
        2.3.1 Positive Freedom and Negative Freedom25-27
        2.3.2 Three Mechanisms of Escaping from freedom27-31
        2.3.3 Two Ways of Achieving Positive Freedom31-36
CHAPTER THREE PLIGHT OF ANNAAND SAULUNDER NEGATIVE FREEDOM36-49
    3.1 Anna’s Plight Under Negative Freedom36-42
        3.1.1 Anna’s Plight in Politics36-39
        3.1.2 Anna’s Plight in Emotional Experience39-41
        3.1.3 Anna’s Plight in Psychology41-42
    3.2 Saul’s Plight Under Negative Freedom42-45
        3.2.1 Saul’s Plight in Politics43-44
        3.2.2 Saul’s Plight in Psychology44-45
    3.3 Struggle for More Freedom45-48
        3.3.1 Anna’s Struggle for More Freedom45-47
        3.3.2 Saul’s Struggle for More Freedom47-48
    3.4 Summary48-49
CHAPTER FOUR WAY OUT OF ANNA AND SAULUNDER POSITIVE FREEDOM49-55
    4.1 Essential Way of Getting Positive Freedom49-52
        4.1.1 Love with Positive Freedom49-51
        4.1.2 Creative Work with Positive Freedom51-52
    4.2 The Self-Realization of Social Meaning of Existence52-53
    4.3 Summary53-55
CONCLUSION55-57
BIBLIOGRAPHY57-61
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS61-62
PAPER(S) PUBLISHED DURING MA STUDIES62
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