论《我亲爱的甜橙树》中的二元对立

On Binary Opposition in My Sweet Orange Tree

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:段惠琼 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 南昌航空大学

Keywords

My Sweet Orange Tree, Structuralism, Binary Opposition, José Mauro de Vasconcelos

        若泽·毛罗·德·瓦斯康塞洛斯(JoséMauro de Vasconcelos,1920-1984)在二十世纪中期巴西,乃至世界文学中享有盛名,占据了极为重要的地位。他有许多脍炙人口的作品,但是许多作品都是以自己的亲身经历为背景进行加工,反应了他对儿童天性及关怀的深入思考。《我亲爱的甜橙树》是瓦斯康塞洛斯的代表作,也是一部全球儿童文学经典。自1968年首版以来,本书在巴西不断再版,并被添加到巴西小学的文学课本中。《我亲爱的甜橙树》已被译成多种语言,赢得来自亚洲、欧洲和美洲数百万年轻读者的心。2010年荣获我国冰心儿童图书奖,故有较高的研究价值。就像白天/黑夜,在场/缺席给人留下深刻印象一样,二元对立的阐述策略在突出人物形象、深化主题方面有明显作用。本文用结构主义二元对立的理论在人物和主题两个方面探究了《我亲爱的甜橙树》中儿童与成人、生与死、不同社会地位家庭的贫与富、幻想与现实等二元对立的元素。在儿童/成人二元对立中,瓦斯康塞洛斯的偏好显而易见。成年人虽然比儿童占优势,却经常生活疲倦,对生活没有希望和幸福感。相比之下,年幼的孩子虽然处于劣势,却天真可爱。父母、哥哥姐姐上班,没有时间陪玩,后院的甜橙树成了最好的陪伴,倾听泽泽的心事。在幻想/现实二元对立中,瓦斯康塞洛斯突出幻想。在泽泽的虚拟世界里,后院有三个游戏区。“动物园”由一只黑豹和两只狮子组成。第二个区域是“欧洲”,泽泽和弟弟路易在那里玩“甜面包山缆车”的游戏。最后的区域是蝙蝠Luciano住的地方。实际上,动物园里的黑豹和两只狮子只是一只老黑母鸡和两只年轻的黄母鸡。亚马逊森林和动物园后面的亚马逊河只是六棵橙树和一条小沟。泽泽和弟弟喜欢的“欧洲”的“甜面包山缆车”则只是一种打发时间的游戏方式。关于贫富二元对立的叙述情节并不少见。读者可以从格洛里亚的叹息中看到他们对美好生活的渴望,还有泽泽对圣诞节礼物的渴望。在死/生的二元对立中,瓦斯康塞洛斯赞美生命。曼纽尔的死是故事的高潮,泽泽饱受精神创伤的痛苦。最后泽泽从痛苦中康复,并继续自己的生活。就像人们所言:一旦战胜了苦难,他们就成了真正的英雄。在温柔与暴力的二元对立中,人们毫无疑问更喜欢温柔,不喜欢暴力。无论泽泽被怎样对待,或是怎样淘气地对待他人,它的温柔善良总能赢得人心。使用二元对立理论阐述《我亲爱的甜橙树》可以使读者更容易理解文本,且对文章的内容、主题、人物性格特点有更深层次的理解。一个巴西最可爱又最淘气的男孩跃然纸上。他想象力丰富、会讲故事、把钱留给同龄人、把蜡涂在人行道上、有时还从邻居那里偷水果。难怪亚马逊网的读者如此喜欢他,不愿意和他分离。本文由五个章节组成。第一章为简介,主要介绍研究背景和重要意义,以及研究目的和本文结构。第二章是文献综述,第一部分介绍作家若泽·毛罗·德瓦斯康塞洛斯的生平及其作品《我亲爱的甜橙树》的影响,第二部分介绍了前人对本作的研究。第三章是理论基础,其包括两个方面的内容:结构主义以及二元对立的起源和发展。第四章详细分析了《我亲爱的甜橙树》中的二元对立。第五章是结论。
    José Mauro de Vasconcelos(1920-1984)has a great reputation and occupies an extremely important position in the literature of Brazil and even the world in the middle of the 20 th century.He has many popular works,but many of his works are written on the basis of his personal experience,reflecting his in-depth reflection on children’s nature and care.My Sweet Orange Tree is Vasconcelos’ masterpiece as well as a global classic for children’s literature.The book is never out of print in Brazil since it was first published in 1968.It is adapted for literature classes for elementary schools in Brazil.My Sweet Orange Tree has been translated into astonishing number of languages and won the hearts of millions of young readers from Asia,Europe and the America.In2010,it won Bing Xin Children’s Book Award,so it has a higher research value.Just like day/night,presence/absence impresses people as much,and binary oppositions have a clear role in highlighting characters and deepening the theme.This thesis explores binary oppositions in characters and binary oppositions in themes.They involve children versus adults,life versus death,poverty versus prosperity in different social status families,fantasy versus reality.In the children/adult dualism,Vasconcelos’ s preferences are obvious.Although adults are superior to children,they are often tired and have no hope or happiness in life.In contrast,young children are innocent,although they are at a disadvantage.Parents,brothers and sisters go to work and do not have time to play with younger children or siblings.The backyard became Zezé’s the best company.In the fantasy/real binary opposition,Vasconcelos highlights fantasy.In Zezé’s virtual world,there are three game zones in the backyard.The “zoo” consists of a black panther and two lions.The second zone is “Europe”.Zezé and Luís play the game of “Sugarloaf Mountain cable car” there.The final zone is a space where the bat Luciano lives ".In fact,the panther and two lions in the zoo are just an old black hen and two young yellow hens.The Amazon forest and the Amazon river behind the zoo are merely six orange trees and a small ditch.As for the game of “Sugarloaf Mountain cable car” in “Europe”,it is a way to play the game.The binary opposition of the rich and the poor is not uncommon.Readers can see Glória’s sighs in their longing for a better life and Zezé’s desire for a Christmas gift.In the binary opposition of death/life,Vasconcelos praised life.The death of Manuel is the climax of the story.Zezé suffers from traumatic pain.He finally recovered from the pain and continued his life.It is like what people say: Once they triumph over suffering,they become real heroes.In the tender/violence binary opposition,people undoubtedly prefer tenderness to violence.No matter how Zezé is treated,or how to deal with others mischievously,his tenderness and kindness always win people’s hearts.The use of binary opposition theory in My Sweet Orange Tree can make readers easier to understand the text,and have a deeper understanding of the content,theme,character characteristics of the article.One of Brazil’s most adorable and mischievous boys leapt on paper.He is rich in imagination,tells stories,leaves money for his peers,applies wax to the sidewalk,and sometimes steals fruit from neighbors.No wonder Amazon’s readers like him so much,and they do not want to be separated from him.The whole paper is composed of five chapters.The first chapter,introduction,mainly introduces the background,significance,purpose of the research and the structure of this thesis.The second chapter,literature review,gives some basic knowledge about the author’s life and the influence of My Sweet Orange Tree.It also introduces the researches that scholars did on this work in the past.The third chapter,theoretical framework,mainly includes two aspects: the origin and development of structuralism and its core method binary opposition.Chapter four gives a detailed description in the binary oppositions: children versus adults,fantasy versus reality,life versus death,affluence versus poverty,and tenderness versus violence pairs in My Sweet Orange Tree.The fifth chapter is the conclusion part.First,it briefly summarizes the main contents of the preceding parts of the text,and then it draws the conclusion.
        

论《我亲爱的甜橙树》中的二元对立

摘要3-5
Abstract5-6
Chapter 1 Introduction8-12
    1.1 The Background of the Research8-10
    1.2 The Purpose and Significance of the Research10-11
    1.3 The Structure of the Thesis11-12
Chapter 2 Literature Review12-18
    2.1 The Brief Introduction of José Mauro de Vasconcelos and his work My Sweet Orange Tree12-15
    2.2 The Previous Researches on My Sweet Orange Tree15-18
Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework18-25
    3.1 The Origin and Development of Structuralism18-20
    3.2 The Core of Structuralism: Binary Opposition20-25
Chapter 4 Binary Opposition in My Sweet Orange Tree25-46
    4.1 Binary Oppositions in the Themes25-41
        4.1.1 Child versus Adult25-28
        4.1.2 Fantasy versus Reality28-30
        4.1.3 Life versus Death30-33
        4.1.4 Affluence versus Poverty33-35
        4.1.5 Tenderness versus Violence35-41
    4.2 Binary Oppositions in the Characters41-46
        4.2.1 Kind-hearted and Naughty Zezé42-44
        4.2.2 Dislike and Caring of Neighbors44-46
Chapter 5 Conclusion46-51
    5.1 Major Findings46-49
    5.2 Limitations and Suggestions49-51
Bibliography51-53
Acknowledgements53-54
发表论文和参加科研情况说明54-55
        
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