创伤理论视角下《靠鲸生活的人》研究

An Analysis of People of the Whale from the Perspective of Trauma Theory

作者: 专业:外国语言学及应用语言学 导师:万涛 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 南昌航空大学

Keywords

People of the Whale, trauma theory, trauma symptoms, trauma causes, trauma recovery

        琳达霍根是美国当代著名的印第安作家。作为土著人的发言人,她的作品具有强烈的现实主义精神。她不仅关注在西方主流文化意识与部落意识冲突之下部落人们的生存状况,而且肯定“回归印第安传统文化”在解决部落困境中所起的重要作用。《靠鲸生活的人》是她2008年完成的最新力作,该作品将部落的地理格局跨越到越南战争这一宏大历史背景中,主要讲述参战者托马斯及其妻子露丝各自遭遇不同类型的创伤,但最终走上创伤复原之路,抚平了内心的伤痛。本文运用创伤理论主要从创伤症状、创伤原因和创伤复原三个方面分析托马斯和露丝的创伤。根据创伤的基本定义和创伤事件,论文首先阐释了他们生理、认知、情感和行为四个层面的创伤症状。在认知层面,托马斯经常遭受闪回或噩梦的侵扰;在行为层面托马斯封闭、孤立自己;在情感层面,露丝陷入无尽的孤独和悲伤;在生理层面她忍受失眠的煎熬。接着论文揭示了托马斯的创伤来源于战争和对捕鲸仪式的期望破灭;而露丝的创伤来源于托马斯的离开,堕落的族人带给她的伤害,以及儿子马克的死亡。最后论文根据朱迪斯·赫曼对于创伤恢复三阶段的理论研究,总结出托马斯通过重建安全感、哀悼创伤经历,通过叙述以及重回自然和集体来复原创伤。而露丝通过积极乐观地面对生活和原谅他人完成了创伤复原。通过分析《靠鲸生活的人》中两位主人公的创伤,本文旨在帮助读者更好地理解作品的内容和作者的创作意图。对主人公创伤原因和创伤复原途径的分析体现了作者的人文主义关怀和作品的现实意义。
    Linda Hogan is a famous contemporary American Indian writer,whose works show strong spirit of realism.As a spokesman of native people,she not only pays attention to the survival of tribal men under the clash between the mainstream western cultural ideology and the tribal ideology but she also holds that returning to Indian traditional culture plays an important role in solving the tribal predicament.People of the Whale,published in 2008,is Linda Hogan’s latest novel.Transcending the tribal geographical layout to the Vietnam War,it mainly narrates that Thomas,who participated in the war,and his wife Ruth suffered different trauma but finally recovered from it.This dissertation applies trauma theory to mainly analyze the trauma of Thomas and Ruth from trauma symptoms,trauma causes and trauma recovery.According to the definition of trauma and traumatic events,it firstly describes their trauma symptoms on physiological level,cognitive level,emotional level and behavioral level.On the behavioral level,Thomas isolated himself from others;On the cognitive level,he suffered nightmare and flashback to repeat his bad memory;On the emotional level,Ruth sank into endless loneliness and deep sorrow;On the physiological level,she suffered insomnia.Then the dissertation expounds that Thomas’ s trauma was caused by the war and the dissolution of the whaling ritual.However,Ruth’s trauma was caused by the departure of Thomas,corrupted tribal men and the death of Marco.At last,according to three stages of recovery from trauma by Judith Herman,Thomas got recovered through establishing a sense of safety,mourning the traumatic experience,narration and returning to nature and community,while Rut got recovered by taking the positive attitude towards life and forgiveness.By analyzing the trauma of the two protagonists in People of the Whale,the dissertation aims at deepening the understanding of the content of the novel as well as the intention of the author.What’s more,the interpretation of trauma causes and trauma recovery of the two main characters in the novel embodies the author’s humanism and the practical meaning of the work.
        

创伤理论视角下《靠鲸生活的人》研究

摘要3-4
Abstract4
Chapter 1 Introduction7-14
    1.1 Linda Hogan and Her Major Works7-10
    1.2 An Introduction of People of the Whale10-11
    1.3 Layout of the Dissertation11-12
    1.4 Significance of the Study12-14
Chapter 2 Literature Review14-21
    2.1 Previous Research on Linda Hogan and People of the Whale Abroad14-17
    2.2 Previous Research on Linda Hogan and People of the Whale at Home17-21
Chapter 3 Trauma Theory21-27
    3.1 The Definition of Trauma21-22
    3.2 The Causes for Trauma22-23
    3.3 Trauma Symptoms23-24
    3.4 Strategies for Recovery24-27
Chapter 4 Protagonists’ Trauma Symptoms in the Novel27-35
    4.1 The Trauma Symptoms of Thomas27-30
        4.1.1 Isolation from Others27-29
        4.1.2 Reexperiencing the Traumatic Events: Flashbacks and Nightmares29-30
    4.2 The Trauma Symptoms of Ruth30-35
        4.2.1 Loneliness and Anxiety30-32
        4.2.2 Depression and Sorrow for Her Fallen Tribal Men32-33
        4.2.3 Insomnia33-35
Chapter 5 The Causes for Protagonists’ Trauma in the Novel35-43
    5.1 The Causes for Thomas’s Trauma35-38
        5.1.1 The Influence of the Vietnam War35-37
        5.1.2 The Dissolution of the Whaling Ritual37-38
    5.2 The Causes for Ruth’s Trauma38-43
        5.2.1 The Departure of Thomas38-40
        5.2.2 The Influence of Colonialism40-41
        5.2.3 The Death of Marco41-43
Chapter 6 Recovery from Trauma43-53
    6.1 Thomas’s Recovery from Trauma43-49
        6.1.1 Establishing a Sense of Safety43-45
        6.1.2 Facing Trauma and Mourning45-46
        6.1.3 Narration46-48
        6.1.4 Returning to Nature and Community48-49
    6.2 Ruth’s Recovery from Trauma49-53
        6.2.1 Positive Attitude towards Life49-51
        6.2.2 Forgiveness and Love51-53
Chapter 7 Conclusion53-56
    7.1 Major Findings53-55
    7.2 Limitations of the Dissertation55-56
Bibliography56-59
Acknowledgements59-60
发表论文和参加科研情况说明60-61
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