长期施肥下我国典型土壤粮食作物氮肥利用率时空演变特征

Tempo-Spatial Variation of Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Grain Food as Affected by Long-Term Fertilization in the Typical Soil of China

作者: 专业:植物营养学 导师:吴礼树 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Nitrogen use efficiency, Long-term fertilization, Temporal characteristics, Spatial Variability

        本研究基于长期施肥试验网—全国化肥网和国家土壤肥力与肥料效益长期监测基地网的研究平台,通过对褐潮土、轻壤质潮土、塿土、红壤、丘岗地红壤性水稻土、红壤性水稻土、冲垄田红壤性水稻土和灰黄泥田水稻土8种不同气候区域农田土壤的两种轮作制度下(小麦—玉米和早稻—晚稻一年两熟)作物氮肥利用率及相关数据的统计分析,研究长期不同施肥下我国典型农田土壤上主要粮食作物(小麦、玉米、水稻)氮肥利用率(NUE)的时间演变趋势和空间差异。为评价和建立长期施肥模式,提高氮肥利用率和实现农业的可持续发展提供理论依据。主要研究结果如下:1.不同气候区域小麦—玉米轮作体系中,平衡施用化肥处理(NPK)、配施有机肥处理(NPKM)及配合秸秆还田处理(NPKS)均显著提高氮肥利用率,小麦和玉米氮肥利用率平均值分别为51.2%和38.3%。而长期单施N处理的小麦和玉米氮肥利用率最小,平均值分别为9.5%和11.7%,并且呈逐年下降趋势,年变化速率分别为-1.82%·a-1和-1.12%·a-1。2.小麦—玉米轮作体系中不同类型土壤的小麦、玉米氮肥利用率对长期施用有机肥的响应程度不同:a)褐潮土NPKM处理小麦、玉米年上升速率分别为1.89%·a-1和2.48%·a-1,可见小麦季施用的有机肥在玉米季有明显的后效。b)轻壤质潮土NPK处理,小麦和玉米氮肥利用率均逐年显著上升,年上升速率为1.44%·a-1、2.31%·a-1;NPKM处理的小麦氮肥利用率多年持平,玉米季的氮肥利用率年上升速率为1.87%·a-1。c)塿土上小麦氮肥利用率年上升速率:NPKM(2.91%·a-1)>NPK(2.04%·a-1),玉米氮肥利用率多年基本持平(NPKM-0.77%·a-1、NPK-0.76%·a-1),可见有机肥肥效主要体现在麦季。d)红壤上施用化肥处理小麦和玉米氮肥利用率均下降,其变化速率分别为-2.90%·a-1和-1.96%·a-1。NPKM处理小麦、玉米氮肥利用率多年持平,土壤无酸化趋势。3.早稻—晚稻轮作体系中不同施肥处理的氮肥利用率差异明显。偏施肥N、NP.NK处理水稻氮肥利用率平均为29.5%;平衡施肥平均为36.9%。NPK处理的氮肥利用率平均为38.9%;NPKM处理平均为35.4%,不同有机肥比例(70F+30M.50F+50M.30F+70M)变化平均为34.3%;NPKS处理平均为38.1%。水稻单施化肥的氮肥利用率高于增施有机肥和不同有机肥比例的处理。4.长期施肥下不同类型水稻土早稻—晚稻轮作体系的作物氮肥利用率及其变化速率不同。偏施肥水稻氮肥利用率在丘岗地红壤性水稻土、红壤性水稻土、冲垄田红壤性水稻土上分别为34.0%、21.2%、29.3%。丘岗地红壤性水稻土的NK处理的早、晚稻NUE的年变化速率分别为-1.48%·a0-1和-0.72%·a-1;红壤性水稻土N处理早、晚稻NUE的年变化速率分别为-1.35%·a-1和-0.86%·a-1;冲垄田红壤性水稻土的早稻NK处理、晚稻NP处理NUE年变化速率分别为-1.31%·a-1和-0.46%·a-1。平衡施肥在丘岗地红壤性水稻土、红壤性水稻土、冲垄田红壤性水稻土和灰黄泥田水稻土上的氮肥利用率分别为35.9%、27.4%、33.1%、47.0%。施用化肥NPK处理,早稻氮肥利用率多年基本持平,晚稻在丘岗地红壤性水稻土、红壤性水稻土、冲垄田红壤性水稻土下降趋势显著,年变化速率分别为-0.88%·a-1、-0.80%·a-1、-0.44%·a-1。灰黄泥田水稻土上各处理的氮肥利用率上下波动而没有明显的变化趋势。
    Long-term(18~27 years) wheat-maize and rice-rice crop rotations experiments were conducted to investigate nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) at eight sites across different soil types (aqui-cinnamon soil, fluvo-aquic soil,cumuli cinnamon soil, red soil, red paddy soil in hilly soil, red paddy soil,red paddy soil in gley region and paddy in Mud-yellow soil) and climate zones in China. This study utilized data from two national long-term fertilization network, i.e.,the National Fertilizer Network and the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects. The objective was focus on NUE temporal and spatial variation and the effect of soil properties on them under long-term fertilization, to provide scientific references for establishing long-term fertilization mode, improving NUE and realizing sustainable development. The main results were as follows:1.The NUE varied significantly over time under wheat-maize crop rotation. The treatments of mineral nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combination (NPK) with/without manure (or straw) could improve NUE significantly, and the average NUE of which in wheat and maize is 51.2% and 38.3%,respectively. However, the lowest NUE of wheat and maize (9.5% and 11.7%) was found in the N treatment, with the annual change rates of -1.82%·a-1 and -1.12%·a-1,respectively.2.The response of the NUE to manure varied with soil types.a) For the Aqui-cinnamon soil, the NUE increase rates (per year) of wheat and maize were 1.89%·a-1,2.48%·a-1 in NPK+M treatment. It showed that manure applied in wheat season affected in the maize season.b) For the Fluvo-aquic soil, the NUE increase rates of wheat and maize were 1.44%·a-1 and 2.31%·a-1 in NPK treatment, respectively. The NUE in wheat season showed little change over time but increased in maize season with a rate of 1.87%·a-1 under NPKM treatment.c)For the Cumuli cinnamon soil, the NUE increase rate of wheat was higher in the NPKM treatment (2.91%·a-1) than that in the NPK treatment(2.04%·a-1).However, the NUE of maize was stable during the experiment period. It indicated that the influence of manure on NUE was mainly in the wheat season.d) For the red soil, the NUE in both wheat and maize were decreased annually under the chemical fertilizer treatments, with declined rates of 2.90%·a-1 and 1.96%·a-1,respectively. Apparently, manure could keep the NUE stable over time.3.There was significant difference in NUE in different treatments under the rice-rice cropping rotation. The average NUE of partial fertilization treatment (N, NP and NK) was 29.5% and balance fertilization achieved 36.9%.The NUE in NPK, NPKM and NPKS were 38.9%,35.4% and 38.1%,respectively. And the average NUE in the treatments of different ratio between mineral and organical fertilizer was 34.3%.4.The NUE and its annual change rate showed various in rice-rice rotation under paddy soil types.The NUE of partial fertilization under red paddy soil in hilly soil, red paddy soil and red paddy soil in gley region were 34.0%,21.2% and 29.3%, respectively. For the red paddy soil in hilly soil, the decline rates of early-rice and late-rice in the NK treatment were 1.48%·a-1 and 0.72%·a-1,respectively.For the red paddy soil, the decline rates of early-rice and late-rice in the N treatment were 1.35%·a-1 and 0.86%·a-1,respectively.For the red paddy soil in gley region, the decline rates of early-rice in the NK treatment and late-rice in the NP treatment were 1.31%·a-1 and 0.46%·a-1,respectively.The NUE of balance fertilization under red paddy soil in hilly soil, red paddy soil, red paddy soil in gley region and paddy in Mud-yellow soil were 35.9%,27.4%,33.1% and 47.0%,respectively.The NUE of early-rice in NPK treatment kept stable.The decline rates of late-rice NUE in NPK treatment under red paddy soil in hilly soil, red paddy soil and red paddy soil in gley region were 0.88%·a-1,0.80%·a-1 and 0.44%·a-1,respectively.The NUE of each treatment showed no significant trends over time under paddy in Mud-yellow soil.
        

长期施肥下我国典型土壤粮食作物氮肥利用率时空演变特征

摘要7-9
Abstract9-10
1 绪论11-19
    1.1 氮肥利用率的定义11
    1.2 国内外长期定位土壤肥料试验概况11-12
        1.2.1 国外长期定位土壤肥料试验11-12
        1.2.2 我国长期定位土壤肥料试验12
    1.3 我国氮肥利用现状12-14
        1.3.1 农田氮肥用量大12-13
        1.3.2 氮肥利用率偏低13-14
    1.4 氮肥利用率的影响因素14-16
        1.4.1 作物14
        1.4.2 土壤类型14-15
        1.4.3 气候15-16
    1.5 提高氮肥利用率的措施16-17
        1.5.1 施肥方式16
        1.5.2 施肥方法16-17
        1.5.3 耕作制度17
        1.5.4 肥水调控技术17
        1.5.5 实时实地氮肥管理17
    1.6 研究目的与意义17-19
2 研究内容与方法19-26
    2.1 研究内容19-20
        2.1.1 长期不同施肥条件下氮肥利用率的差异19
        2.1.2 长期施肥氮肥利用率的时间演变19
        2.1.3 长期施肥氮肥利用率的空间演变19
        2.1.4 影响氮肥利用率时空演变的土壤因子19
        2.1.5 影响氮肥利用率的气候条件、作物种类因子19-20
    2.2 技术路线20
    2.3 材料与方法20-26
        2.3.1 试验地概况20-22
        2.3.2 试验设计22-24
        2.3.3 土壤及植物养分测定24
        2.3.4 数据整理与分析24-26
3 小麦—玉米轮作体系氮肥利用率的时空演变26-44
    3.1 小麦氮肥利用率时空演变特征26-29
        3.1.1 长期不同施肥处理下小麦氮肥利用率差异26-27
        3.1.2 长期施肥小麦氮肥利用率的变化趋势27-29
        3.1.3 长期施肥小麦氮肥利用率的年变化率29
    3.2 玉米氮肥利用率的时空演变特征29-32
        3.2.1 长期不同施肥处理下玉米氮肥利用率差异29-30
        3.2.2 长期施肥玉米氮肥利用率的变化趋势30-32
        3.2.3 长期施肥玉米氮肥利用率的年变化率32
    3.3 氮肥利用率的影响因子分析32-41
        3.3.1 土壤全氮含量变化33-34
        3.3.2 土壤碱解氮含量变化34-35
        3.3.3 土壤pH35-37
        3.3.4 土壤多因子影响37-38
        3.3.5 气候、作物品种38-41
    3.4 讨论41-43
    3.5 小结43-44
4 早稻—晚稻轮作体系水稻氮肥利用率时空演变44-55
    4.1 水稻氮肥利用率的时空演变44-49
        4.1.1 长期不同施肥下水稻氮肥利用率差异44-46
        4.1.2 长期施肥水稻氮肥利用率的变化趋势46-49
        4.1.3 长期施肥水稻氮肥利用率的年变化速率49
    4.2 水稻氮肥利用率的影响因子49-53
        4.2.1 土壤全氮含量变化50-51
        4.2.2 土壤碱解氮含量变化51-52
        4.2.3 土壤pH变化52
        4.2.4 土壤多因子影响52
        4.2.7 气候52-53
    4.3 讨论53-54
    4.4 小结54-55
5 结论55-56
参考文献56-61
致谢61-62
作者简介62
        


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