基于能值分析的循环农业发展研究

—— 以武汉银河生态农业有限公司为例
Emergy Analysis of Recycling Agriculture Development

作者: 专业:农业经济管理 导师:王宇波 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Emergy analysis, Recycling agriculture, Evaluation system, Yinhe

        改革开放三十多年来,我国农业发展取得了长足的进步,农产品总产量快速增加、品种日益丰富、现代化水平大幅提高,土地利用效率远高于世界平均水平,但这种粗放掠夺性经营方式同时也带来了一系列严重问题:农业生产用水浪费很大,水资源短缺;化肥、农药、能源、农用薄膜等农业生产要素的过量投入致使农村面源污染严重、土壤板结、养分流失;农产品安全问题令人担忧;农业产业化水平不高,农副产品加工可更新有机能链条较短,农产品资源利用率较低。这些问题导致了自然资源的严重浪费和生态环境的不断恶化,严重影响了农村经济的可持续发展。发展循环农业旨在从资源的有效利用和保护生态环境的基点出发,以建立高效农业生态系统为目标,广泛采用生物工程、可再生能源和农副产品深加工技术,促进农业生产各环节物质有效利用和能源的梯级利用,提高农业系统自身的生产能力和增值能力,转变农业增长方式,走资源节约和环境友好型发展之路。近年来,我国各地积极开展循环农业实践,创造了很多卓有成效的典型模式,但这些模式受自然与社会因素限制,大面积复制推广风险很大。目前文献对于循环农业的模式研究较多,能够进行定量分析、科学评价的很少,不同模式客观比较和对于推广应用的条件分析明显不足。能值理论将输入生态系统的各种资源和能量转化为能值,以太阳能值来衡量某一资源的能值大小。它可以衡量人类经济活动,也可以衡量自然资源财富。所以,以能值为基准,把不同种类、不同性质的资源转换成统一标准的能值来衡量资源效率,是一种创新方法。本文试图在深入分析循环农业的内涵、相关理论和特征的基础上,引入生态经济学中的能值分析理论,将农业系统中的能量与价值流统一转化为能值后对循环农业系统进行分析评价,从而发现系统各环节的效率损失及系统产出潜力,可用于对循环农业系统的优化与重构。研究结果通过武汉市循环农业发展重大科技攻关项目——武汉银河生态农业有限公司循环经济试点实证分析加以验证和应用。本文的研究结论主要有以下几方面:(1)能值分析适用于量化分析和评价循环农业。通过深入分析循环农业的相关理论和原则,鉴定了能值分析可以适用于量化分析和评价循环农业。能值分析方法将能量利用熵增原理和基于市场的价值流结合起来,可深入系统分析其内部的能值流运行过程,改变过去对经济系统采用的黑箱定性分析方法,准确指出系统缺失的能值耗损环节。构建循环农业的能值指标体系,可以对资源环境要素的利用和影响、循环农业的发展进行比较全面的评价。(2)武汉银河生态有限公司循环农业典型模式的实证分析。应用本研究建立的循环农业能值分析指标体系对武汉银河生态有限公司的实证分析表明,由单一集约养殖场结合农地流转建设发展起来的“猪—沼(能)肥—地—菜(藕、果、粮)—鱼—村”六位一体的循环农业典型模式,和土地流转前分割的水稻、小麦、油菜、棉花、蔬菜、柑橘、猪、鱼的农业生产系统相比,前者在能值转化率、可更新率、能值投资率、能值自给率、净能值产出率、环境负载率、能值交换比率方面比后者均表现出优势。武汉银河生态公司的循环农业发展模式为武汉城市圈“两型社会”建设中农业和农村发展提供了宝贵的经验,可有效解决困扰城郊农村发展的“农业增效难、农民增收慢、集约养殖业与城市发展相悖、农业产业化程度低”等问题,为集约养殖业与城郊农业协调发展提供了新的发展模式。
    China has made considerable progress in agricultural development for the past thirty years of reform and opening up. China has seen a rapid increase in agricultural production and a substantial increase in the level of modernization. The land-use efficiency of China is much higher than the world average. Nonetheless, the extensive predatory mode of operation also brought a series of serious problems--a great waste of water in agricultural production, water shortages; chemical fertilizers, pesticides, energy, agricultural film and other agricultural production factors resulted in excess investment in serious rural point source pollution, soil compaction, and nutrient loss. Problem of food safety causes anxiety. Agricultural industry level is low, and agricultural processing chain is short, utilization of agricultural resources is low. These problems led to a serious waste of natural resources and deteriorating ecological environment, which affected the sustainable development of rural economy seriously.Recycling agriculture aims to use resources effectively and protect the environment, to establish a highly efficient target agro-ecosystems, a wide range of biological engineering, renewable energy and agricultural products processing technologies, and promote all aspects of agricultural production material use and energy cascade utilization, and to improve agricultural productivity and the ability to change the growth mode of agriculture, taking resource conservation and environment-friendly development. In recent years, the recycling agricultural practices is made throughout the country and a lot of fruitful typical models are created, but these models are subject to natural and social constraints, thus large-scale replication is highly risky.There is a great deal of literature on recycling agriculture, but few of them are based upon quantitative analysis. Objective comparison of different models and application of the conditions of analysis is obviously inadequate. Emergy theory transform ecosystem resources and energy into energy value to measure the value of a resource in terms of solar energy. It can measure human economic activity and the wealth of natural resources as well. Therefore, it is an innovative approach to use emergy as benchmark to converse different resources of different types and different nature into a unified standard in order to measure the value of resource efficiency.This paper attempts to analyze the meaning of recycling agriculture, the related theory and its characteristics, and then introduce the emergy theory in ecological economics. The energy and value flow of the agricultural system can be standardized into emergy, recycling agriculture system is evaluated to find out the efficiency loss of potential output, which can be used for the optimization of recycling agricultural systems and reconstruction. This paper use emergy theory to analyze the major scientific and technological research projects of Wuhan-Yinhe Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd. Wuhan.The main conclusions of this paper are the following:(1) Emergy analysis can be applied to quantitative analysis and evaluation of recycling agriculture. Through in-depth analysis of relevant theories and principles of recycling agriculture, this paper show that energy analysis can be applied to quantitative analysis and evaluation of recycling agriculture. Emergy analysis can combine the energy use entropy theory and market-based value, and take an in-depth systematic analysis of its internal emergy process, thus change the economic the black-box method of qualitative analysis in the preceding literature and point out that the missing emergy accurately. An indicator system of recycling agriculture is constructed to evaluate the use of the resources and environment and its impact, and the development of recycling agriculture.(2) The empirical analysis on the tyoical pattern of Yinhe Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd. Using the established indicator system of emergy analysis, the empirical analysis on Yinhe Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd show that, separated intensive breeding farms combined with land transfer can develop the six-in-one-cycle typical patterns of recycling agriculture, "pig-biogas fertilizer (energy)-vegetables (lotus root, fruit, food)-fish-village ". Compared with the separated agricultural production systems of rice, wheat, rapeseed, cotton, vegetables, citrus fruits, pigs, and fish, the former show bettter performance in values in emergy transformation rate, update rate, emergy investment rate, energy self-sufficiency rate, the net emergy yield, environmental loading ratio, and emergy exchange ratio. Yinhe Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd. has provided valuable experience for agricultural and rural development, which can effectively solve the problems of agricultural efficiency stagnation, slow income increase of farmers, contradiction of intensive farming industry and urban development, the low industrialization level of agriculture in the suburbs of rural area, and provide a new development model for coordination of intensive breeding and peri-urban agriculture.
        

基于能值分析的循环农业发展研究

摘要7-9
Abstract9-10
1 导言11-16
    1.1 研究背景、问题的提出与研究意义11-13
        1.1.1 研究背景11
        1.1.2 问题的提出11-12
        1.1.3 研究意义12-13
    1.2 研究目标与基本框架13-14
    1.3 研究的理论基础和研究方法14
    1.4 可能的创新之处14-16
2 理论回顾与相关研究进展16-27
    2.1 理论回顾16-20
        2.1.1 循环农业的基本理论16-18
        2.1.2 循环农业的特点18-19
        2.1.3 发展循环农业的原则19-20
    2.2 相关研究进展20-27
        2.2.1 国外循环农业相关的研究现状20
        2.2.2 国内循环农业相关的研究现状20-25
        2.2.3 能值分析在农业经济研究中的应用25-27
3 基于能值分析的循环农业发展评价27-36
    3.1 能值分析相关概念27-29
        3.1.1 能值27-28
        3.1.2 能值转换率28-29
        3.1.3 能值分析中的资源分类29
    3.2 能值分析在循环农业评价中的适用性29-30
    3.3 能值分析的基本步骤30-32
        3.3.1 收集资料30-31
        3.3.2 绘制能量系统图31
        3.3.3 编制能值分析表31-32
        3.3.4 构建系统能值综合结构图32
        3.3.5 建立能值指标评价体系32
        3.3.6 系统的发展评价和建议32
    3.4 循环农业能值指标体系32-36
4 银河循环农业的发展状况36-44
    4.1 研究区概况36-37
        4.1.1 地理位置与自然条件36
        4.1.2 公司基本情况36-37
    4.2 银河循环农业模式的创建37-42
        4.2.1 银河发展循环农业的背景37-38
        4.2.2 构建循环农业基础的土地流转模式38
        4.2.3 银河循环农业的构建38-39
        4.2.4 银河循环农业生态链结构39-40
        4.2.5 银河循环农业的特征40-41
        4.2.6 银河水循环系统41-42
    4.3 银河循环农业经济效益分析42
    4.4 银河循环农业社会效益分析42-44
5 银河循环农业的能值分析44-72
    5.1 数据整理及计算说明44-48
        5.1.1 能值计算规则44-45
        5.1.2 相关资源能值的计算方法45-47
        5.1.3 系统能值综合结构图的绘制说明47-48
    5.2 研究结果分析48-70
        5.2.1 能值表对比分析48-62
        5.2.2 能值指标评价62-70
    5.3 银河循环农业的发展总结70-72
6 主要结论与建议72-77
    6.1 主要结论72-73
    6.2 政策建议73-75
        6.2.1 加强循环农业的定量分析方法研究73
        6.2.2 改善农业基础设施条件73
        6.2.3 加快科技创新,强化循环农业发展的技术支撑73-74
        6.2.4 延长产业链条,进行产品深加工74
        6.2.5 积极拓宽融资渠道74
        6.2.6 加强宣传,推广典型模式,坚持因地制宜的原则74
        6.2.7 探索制度创新,寻求合理制度安排74-75
    6.3 不足和进一步研究工作75-77
参考文献77-80
附录80-101
硕士期间发表论文101-102
致谢102
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