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我国重大动物疫情应急管理研究

Study on Major Animal Epidemic Emergency Management in China

作者: 专业:后方专业勤务 导师:徐卸古 年度:2014 学位:硕士  院校: 中国人民解放军军事医学科学院

Keywords

major animal epidemic, zoonosis, emergency management, prevention and controlsystem

        近年来,随着一系列重大动物疫情应急管理法律法规及预案的出台,我国从中央到地方的各级应急管理组织体系逐步建立,应急管理机制逐步完善。特别是口蹄疫、高致病性禽流感、猪链球菌病等疫情的有效控制,为重大动物疫病应急管理积累了丰富的实践经验,我国重大动物疫情应急管理水平得到极大的提高,获得社会各界的充分肯定,更赢得了相关国际组织和国家的高度评价。但是我们也要清醒地看到,当前我国重大动物疫情应急管理现状仍然不容乐观,还存在应急管理体制不健全、法律法规不完善、运行机制不顺畅、应急预案操作性不强、缺乏稳固长效的财政保障机制、应急资源储备不足等问题。本文将围绕我国重大动物疫情应急管理理论与实践问题进行深入探讨,系统地研究我国重大动物疫情应急管理的现状和存在的问题与不足,在总结借鉴美国、澳大利亚在重大动物疫情应急管理体系建设经验的基础上,提出我国重大动物疫情应急管理体系完善的对策建议。一是改革应急管理体制。从长远建设而言,我国的确需要建立一个更具权威的组织机构将动物疫病防控宏观决策方面的工作统筹起来,实现人医和兽医一体化的“大卫生”防疫体系。在这个体制革新的过渡时期,本文认为近期的重点工作是加快建立高效统一的应急指挥体制、进一步理顺兽医管理体制,并在此基础上健全联系会议—联防联控—应急指挥部相结合的“一体三模”平战转换机制,实现应急管理从事后被动型到事前主动性的积极转变。二是健全应急管理法制。首先要加快创制有关突发公共事件应急处置的单项法律规范,并与《重大动物疫情应急条例》建立横向联系,将重大动物疫情融入自然灾害、生物恐怖袭击等紧急事件的管理规范中。其次要加快制定修订《动物防疫法》的相关配套规范和管理办法,围绕动物疫病防控中的不同环节继续细化针对性措施,并加大紧急状态下违法违规行为的处罚力度,为应急工作保驾护航。第三要在立法完善过程中建立政府部门、行业组织和社会公众三方监督机制,以此推动立法、执法和守法三个目标的高度统一。三是创新应急管理运行机制。首先要从健全信息收集和报告体系、顺畅信息传递和交流通路、创新重大动物疫病监测预警机制三个方面入手,进一步完善国家动物疫病测报网络,搭建全国统一的监测与疫情信息平台,将主动监测、被动接受报告、群众举报和社会媒体监督等各方面的疫情信息进行集中汇总和智能化分析,充分实现重大动物疫情预警预报功能。其次在健全生产恢复机制上,要优先考虑国家财政投入和市场商业保险机制相结合的政策调整,通过理念输灌、政策引导和行政干预等举措将动物疫病防控财政支持改革逐步向保险市场深化拓展。同时还要从科学界定补偿标准、扩大补偿的范围和病种、创新补偿资金运作方式等方面进一步完善现行的扑杀补偿政策。四是完善预案编制与管理。首先要在继续完善总体预案的基础上,重大做好各病种应急预案的制定和完善工作。其次应继续加大对应急演练工作的支持力度,多组织一些跨区域、跨部门的综合性演练,同时还要积极进行演练形式的拓展研究。五是构筑稳固、长效的财政保障机制。要从加大支持力度、优化支出结构、完善配套机制三个方面入手,建立健全长期、稳定的经费投入机制。就近期工作而言,要把提高基层人员生活待遇和基础设施水平作为加大经费投入的突破口,切实解决一些基层地区“人散、线断、网破”的突出问题。六是推进应急资源储备系统建设。在应急资金储备上,首先要建立应急预算制度和重大动物疫情风险防范基金,保证疫情发生时资金调的动、用的上。其次要科学配比资金投入,加大预防性投入。在应急物资储备上,首先要建立多元化的储备方式,即实现政府储备与企业储备相结合,实物储备与生产力储备相结合、不同灾种物资储备间联动结合。其次要根据当地疫病预警预测信息进行研判,及时调整储备物资的品种和数量。在基础设施储备上,首先要加强动物疫病监测预警基础设施建设和各级冷链系统建设,保证疫苗的储藏和运输条件。其次要整合现有资源,合理布局动物疫病防控检测和研究实验室平台,通过充实一线、共享资源和网络管理的整合形式,逐步形成覆盖全国的兽医实验室网络。第三要将物资储备库建设纳入国家配套项目建设规划,要充分考虑边远地区的储运困难,根据需要和现状合理设计数量和规模。在科学技术储备上,要加强重大动物疫病的基础性和应用性研究,建立健全动物性疾病、人兽共患病和应急管理等相关领域的基础性研究中心和综合性科研基地。同时还要注重重大动物疫病防控和应急管理的衔接性和跨学科研究,特别是要加快应急平台技术研究和应用。在应急队伍储备上,从短期打算来看,要强化应急培训力度,通过对各级各类人员的培训和考核来促进应急预备队伍的素质建设。从长期计划而言,要形成待遇保障和奖惩激励的长效机制以及建立候选应急人员资格认可制度,确保队伍的专业性和稳定性,逐步实现队伍的年轻化、知识化和信息化。
    In recent years, along with the introduction of a series of laws, regulations and plans inrespect of major animal epidemic emergency management, on each level from central to local,emergency management system has been gradually established, meanwhile emergencymanagement mechanism has been improved. Particularly, epidemic situation such as: foot-and-mouth disease, highly pathogenic avian influenza, and swine streptococcosis, is effectively undercontrol, which provides rich practical experience for major animal epidemic emergencymanagement. China’s capacity for major animal epidemic emergency management has beengreatly enhanced, and has gained approval from all sectors of society, and has been highlyevaluated by related countries and international organizations. However, we must keep a clearmind, for the current situation of major animal epidemic emergency management does not permitour complacence. There are many problems as following, unsound emergency managementsystem, incomplete laws and regulations, slack operation mechanism, weak operability ofcontingency plan, lack of stable and long-acting financial security mechanism, and insufficientemergency resources reserve and so on.This paper will have a deep exploration about the theory and practice of major animalepidemic emergency management, and systematically study the situation and drawbacks ofChina’s major animal epidemic emergency management. On the basis of America’s experienceabout developing major animal epidemic emergency management system, countermeasure andsuggestions to improve that of China’s would be offered.First, reform emergency management system. In the long run, a more authoritativeorganization in China is needed, so as to integrate animal disease prevention work with controlwork in making macro decision. And try to achieve the integration of medical and veterinary, anda big health care epidemic prevention system. In the transitional period of system innovation,the focus is to accelerate the establishment of an efficient and unified emergency commandsystem, and to further rationalize veterinary medicine management system. Then try to perfectthe shifting mechanism of one integration, three modes combining joint meeting, jointprevention and control, and emergency headquarters. Finally, try to realize the transition frompassive attitude to positive reaction in advance.Second, improve emergency management laws. To begin with, speed up the establishmentof individual legal norms dealing with emergent public events, and establish horizontal ties withMajor Animal Epidemic Emergency Regulations. Blend major animal epidemic in managementstandard dealing with emergent issues, such as, natural disaster, biological terrorist attacks. Next,accelerate the formulation and revision of relevant standards and management measures ofAnimal Epidemic Prevention Law. Centering on different sectors in animal disease preventionand control, we should continue to refine corresponding measures. In order to escort foremergency work, under a state of emergency, punishment of violation behavior would be intensified. In addition, in the process of perfecting legislation, supervision mechanism of threesides should be developed including government departments, trade organizations and the socialpublic, so as to realize the great unity among the three targets: legislation, law enforcement andlaw-abiding.Third, innovate emergency management operation mechanism. To begin with threeaspects: improving the information collection and reporting system, unclogging informationtransfer and communication channel, innovating major animal disease monitoring and earlywarning mechanism, we would further improve the national animal disease telemetry network. Anational unified monitoring and epidemic information platform should be built, summarizingepidemic information coming from various ways: initiative monitoring, passive accepted reports,reports from the masses, and social media supervision, and this information would be analyzedwith an intelligent method. Thus, major animal epidemic warning function would be fullyrealized. Next, as for improving the production recovery mechanism, priority should be given tothe combination between the state financial input and commercial insurance mechanism. Byinfusing ideology, policy guidance, administrative intervention, reform of the financial supportfor animal epidemic prevention should be further deepened and expanded in insurance market. Atthe same time, current culling compensation policy should be further improved from thefollowing aspects, scientifically defining the compensation standard, expanding the scope ofcompensation, the range of diseases, and innovating the way compensation money works.Fourth, perfect preplan compilation and management. Primarily, while continuing toimprove the overall plan, we should also develop contingency plans for major diseases. Next,more support for the work of emergency drills should be given, and more trans-regional andtrans-departmental comprehensive exercises ought to be organized. Meanwhile, extensionresearch on drills’form should be energetically carried on.Fifth, establish a stable and long-term financial security mechanism. Starting fromthree aspects: increasing support, optimizing expenditure structure, and improving the supportingmechanism, we ought to establish and develop a stable and long-term mechanism of financialinvestment. In the case of present work, emphasis should be put on enhancing the grass-rootsliving conditions and infrastructure level, and prominent problems scattered people, broken linkand network should be properly solved.Sixth, promote constructing emergency resources reserve system. In respect ofemergency reserve, the emergency budget system and risk of major animal epidemic preventionfund ought to be firstly established, to ensure that the fund can be used in case of epidemicoutbreak. Next, scientifically allocate funding investment, and increase preventive investment. Asfor emergency supplies reserve, diversified ways of reserves should be formed, that is to say,integration between government reserve and enterprise reserve, combination between physicalreserve and productivity reserve, and linkage among different resources reserve for differentdisasters. In addition, we should make decision according to the local disease forecast, and thenadjust species and quantity of reserve. In terms of infrastructure reserve, the infrastructure development of animal disease monitoring and forecast, as well as cold chain system at all levelsshould be stressed, to assure the storage and transport of vaccine. In the second place, the existingresources need to be integrated, and animal disease prevention, control and detection should havea reasonable layout. And a proper layout of research platform is also needed. Throughstrengthening the frontline, sharing resources and network management, a veterinary laboratorynetwork covering the whole country will be gradually established. In the third place, the materialreserve should be included in the supporting project of national construction plan. Storage andtransfer difficulties in remote areas ought to be taken into consideration. Quantity and scaleshould be properly designed in accordance with local requirement and its situation. On thescience and technology reserve, we should strengthen both the basic and applied research onmajor animal epidemics. Basic research centers and comprehensive science bases relevant to thefollowing domains: animal diseases, zoonosis and emergency management, ought to be built. Atthe same time, the bridging between major animal disease prevention and control, and emergencymanagement, as well as interdisciplinary research need be emphasized, particularly, theacceleration of research and application of the emergency platform technology. As foremergency team reserve, from a short-term plan view, emergency training should be intensified,promoting the quality construction of emergency team reserve by training and testing all kinds ofpersonnel at all levels. From a long-term plan view, a long-term mechanism of welfare, rewardsand punishment should be established, and an emergency personnel qualification recognitionsystem is also needed, to ensure the specialty and stability of its team. Gradually, the team will beyounger, more knowledgeable and informationized.
        

我国重大动物疫情应急管理研究

中文摘要5-7
Abstract7-9
第一章 绪论10-16
    1.1 选题背景与研究意义10-11
        1.1.1 选题背景10-11
        1.1.2 研究意义11
    1.3 国内外研究综述11-14
        1.3.1 国外研究现状11-13
        1.3.2 国内研究现状13-14
    1.4 研究框架及创新之处14
        1.4.1 内容框架14
        1.4.2 创新之处14
    1.5 研究方法和技术路线14-16
        1.5.1 研究方法14-15
        1.5.2 技术路线15-16
第二章 相关概念界定及理论阐释16-23
    2.1 应急管理的概念界定及特征16-17
        2.1.1 应急管理的概念16-17
        2.1.2 应急管理的特征17
    2.2 重大动物疫情应急管理及特征17-19
        2.2.1 重大动物疫情应急管理的概念17-18
        2.2.2 重大动物疫情应急管理的特点18-19
    2.3 我国重大动物疫情流行现状19-23
        2.3.1 我国主要动物疫病19-20
        2.3.2 我国重大动物疫病发生情况20-23
第三章 我国重大动物疫情应急管理现状及问题23-34
    3.1 我国重大动物疫情应急管理体系的现状23-29
        3.1.1 形成了重大动物应急管理的预案体系23
        3.1.2 制定了重大动物疫情应急管理的相关法律23-24
        3.1.3 构建了重大动物疫情应急管理的管理体制24-26
        3.1.4 建立了重大动物疫情应急管理的运行机制26-27
        3.1.5 取得了重大动物疫情应急管理的实践成绩27-29
    3.2 我国重大动物疫情应急管理体系的主要问题29-34
        3.2.1 重大动物疫情应急管理体制的不健全29-30
        3.2.2 重大动物疫情应急管理的法律体系不完善30
        3.2.3 重大动物疫情应急管理的运行机制不顺畅30-31
        3.2.4 应急预案操作性不强,缺乏大范围、多形式的演练31-32
        3.2.5 应急资源储备不足,财政投入缺乏稳固的长效机制32-34
第四章 美国、澳大利亚重大动物疫情应急管理体系建设经验34-45
    4.1 美国重大动物疫情应急管理体系建设经验34-40
        4.1.1 统一协调的管理体制34-35
        4.1.2 日益完善的管理法制35-36
        4.1.3 运转高效的管理机制36-39
        4.1.4 支持有力的管理保障39-40
    4.2 澳大利亚重大动物疫情应急管理体系建设经验40-45
        4.2.1 层次分明、职能明确的应急组织体系41
        4.2.2 日趋健全、注重实效的应急制度体系41-42
        4.2.3 科学合理、和谐有序的应急管理机制42-45
第五章 完善我国重大动物疫情应急管理的对策建议45-54
    5.1 改革重大动物疫情应急管理体制45-47
        5.1.1 加快建立高效统一的应急指挥体制45-46
        5.1.2 进一步理顺兽医管理工作体制46-47
    5.2 健全重大动物疫情应急管理法制建设47
    5.3 创新重大动物疫情应急管理运行机制47-50
        5.3.1 构建全面的疫情测报网络,充分实现预报预警功能47-49
        5.3.2 健全生产恢复机制,完善扑杀补偿政策49-50
    5.4 完善应急预案编制,拓展预案演练的范围和形式50
    5.5 构筑财政支持长效保障机制,推进应急资源储备系统建设50-54
        5.5.1 构筑长效、稳固的财政保障机制50-51
        5.5.2 推进应急资源储备系统建设51-54
结语54-55
参考文献55-58
文献综述58-64
    参考文献62-64
发表论著64-69
    参考文献68-69
个人简介69-70
致谢70
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