首页 > 硕士 > 农学 > 正文

桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀特征及敏感性评价

Soil Erosion Characteristics and Sensitivity Evaluation in Tongbai-Dabie Mountainous Area

作者: 专业:水土保持与荒漠化防治 导师:刘霞 年度:2010  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

        本文以地处淮河流域的桐柏大别山区为研究区域,以1987、1997、2007年三个典型时期的遥感影像为主要信息源,综合运用3S技术和水土保持理论与方法,通过人机交互解译与野外调查验证,依据水利部部颁土壤侵蚀分类分级标准(SL190-2007),对土壤侵蚀现状、时空变化特征、土壤侵蚀敏感性、主要环境影响因子等进行了系统研究,主要成果如下:1.掌握了桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀格局特征2007年桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀强度整体上以轻度侵蚀为主,中度、强烈侵蚀次之(局部地区),而极强烈、剧烈侵蚀所占比例很小。不同土壤侵蚀强度等级面积所占土壤侵蚀面积比例为:轻度侵蚀60.80%,中度侵蚀23.80%,强烈侵蚀13.59%,极强烈侵蚀1.81%。2007年土壤侵蚀面积为6378.15km~2,占土地总面积23.44%,土壤侵蚀综合指数为1.37。广水市、大悟县、舒城县、曾都区、岳西县、桐柏县、金寨县、新县、霍山县等9个县市区均高于平均指数,表明这些县市是桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀相对比较严重的地区。2.阐明了桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀的时空变化特征20年间,桐柏大别山区的土壤侵蚀面积(占土地总面积比例)由1987年的7416.11km~2(27.25%),增加到1997年的9904.80km~2(36.40%),而后减小到2007年的6378.15km~2(23.44%)。表明土壤侵蚀面积先增加后减小总体减小。土壤侵蚀面积减少的实质,是较高强度等级土壤侵蚀向较低等级土壤侵蚀转变的过程。在前一时段(1987~1997年)高强度侵蚀面积增加、低强度侵蚀面积减少,而在后一时段(1997~2007年)高强度侵蚀面积减少、低强度侵蚀面积增加,全时段(1987~2007)为高强度侵蚀面积减少、低强度侵蚀面积增加。这与土壤侵蚀面积先增加后减少总体减少的过程是一致的。3.评价了桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀敏感性桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀敏感性较高,中度及其以上敏感级别面积占总面积的46.34%,而轻度敏感和不敏感分别占44.30%和9.36%。在空间分布格局上,呈由南向北减弱的特征,敏感性较高的区域主要分布在金寨县、霍山县、岳西县、舒城县、商城县等中南部山区县,而北部平原区敏感性较低。土壤侵蚀敏感性分布与土壤侵蚀强度具有较高的一致性,土壤侵蚀敏感性高的区域也是目前土壤侵蚀严重的区域,这表明降雨、地形、土壤、植被等自然因素对土壤侵蚀的分布有重要影响。但在局部地区土壤侵蚀强度与土壤侵蚀敏感性并不完全一致,这是由于人类活动的作用程度和利用方式不同所造成的。4.分析了桐柏大别山区主要土壤侵蚀影响因素植被盖度是决定土壤侵蚀强度的关键因素。随着区域植被盖度增加,土壤侵蚀强度呈下降趋势,或高强度侵蚀比例下降,低强度侵蚀比例增加的特征。土壤侵蚀比较严重和集中的地区,发生在植被覆盖度15%~45%的低度和中低度覆盖区域,以中度侵蚀为主。土壤侵蚀与坡度密切相关。随着地面坡度的增加,区域土壤侵蚀强度增加的特征。土壤侵蚀主要发生在坡度为8°以上的区域。中度以上侵蚀主要发生在坡度大于15°的区域。土壤侵蚀主要分布在林地、草地和耕地等土地利用方式。其中,林地的土壤侵蚀最为严重,经济林是林地中土壤侵蚀问题最为突出的区域;而耕地也是土壤侵蚀的重点区域,坡耕地则是耕地中土壤侵蚀问题较为突出的区域。
    This paper has chosen Tongbai-Dabie mountainous area in the Huaihe River Valley as the study region. Remote sensing (RS) images of three typical periods (1987、1997、2007) are the main information sources. Based on“3S”technology (RS、GIS、GPS) and soil and water conservation theory and method, through the methods of man-machine interaction interpretation and investigation in the open air, according to the soil erosion grading standards of the Ministry of Water Conservation (SL190-2007), this paper has researched soil erosion situation, temporal and spatial dynamics, soil erosion sensitivity and the relationship between the environmental factors and soil erosion. And the main results are as follows:1. The present situation characteristics of soil erosion are grasped.Mild erosion is the main soil erosion intensity in 2007, and moderate and serious erosion is in some areas, and extremely and severe erosion is so little. The proportions of different soil erosion intensity are: mild erosion accounts for 60.80%; moderate erosion is 23.80%; serious erosion is 13.59%; extremely erosion is 1.81%. Soil erosion area is 6378.15km~2 (23.44%) and soil erosion comprehensive index is 1.37. The index in Guangshui, Dawu, Shucheng, Zengdu, Yuexi, Tongbai, Jinzhai, Xin County and Huoshan is higher than the average and it shows that soil erosion in these cities is serious.2. The temporal and spatial dynamics of soil erosion are explored.Soil erosion area (proportion) increases from 7416 km~2 (27.25%) of 1987 to 9904.80 km~2 (36.40%) of 1997, and then reduces to 6378.15 km~2 (23.44%) of 2007. It shows that soil erosion area increases at first and then reduces, and takes on overall reduction tendency. The essence is that high intensity level transforms to low intensity level. High intensity area increases and low intensity area reduces in the first period (1987~1997), and high intensity reduces and low intensity increases in the second period (1997~2007), and high intensity weakenes and low intensity strengthens in the past 20 years (1987~2007). This is in coincidence with soil erosion area changing process. 3. The soil erosion sensitivity is evaluated.Soil erosion sensitivity is relatively high, and over moderate level is 46.34% and mild level and insensitive level is separately 44.30% and 9.36%. In spatial distribution, sensitivity reduces from south to north, and high sensitivity is mainly in the south, such as Jinzhai, Huoshan, Shangcheng, Yuexi, Shucheng, and so on. And sensitivity in the north plain is low. The distribution of soil erosion sensitivity is high consistency with soil erosion intensity. The region of high sensitivity is also serious in soil erosion, indicating that regional soil erosion is highly influenced by natural factors, but in some areas there is a certain difference because of human activities.4. The main influence factors are analyzed.Vegetation coverage is a key factor to determine soil erosion intensity. With the increase of vegetation coverage, soil erosion intensity weakens. Serious erosion mainly distributes in low coverage (15%~45%) and relatively low coverage.Soil erosion and slope are closely related. With the increase of slope, soil erosion intensity strengthens. Soil erosion mainly distributes in over 8°. Over moderate erosion mainly occurs in over 15°.Soil erosion mainly occurs in forest land, grassland and farmland. In these land utilization, soil erosion in forest land is serious and economical forest land is priority. Besides, soil erosion in farmland is relatively serious and sloping farmland is priority.
        

桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀特征及敏感性评价

符号说明4-8
摘要8-10
Abstract10-11
1 引言12-27
    1.1 研究目的与意义12-13
    1.2 国内外土壤侵蚀研究进展13-27
        1.2.1 土壤侵蚀及研究方法13-14
        1.2.2 遥感在土壤侵蚀中的应用14-18
        1.2.3 国内外土壤侵蚀遥感监测研究进展18-24
        1.2.4 国内外生态敏感性研究进展24-26
        1.2.5 国内外土壤侵蚀敏感性研究进展26-27
2 研究区概况27-30
    2.1 地理位置27
    2.2 自然概况27-29
        2.2.1 地质27
        2.2.2 地形地貌27
        2.2.3 气候水文27-28
        2.2.4 土壤28
        2.2.5 生物资源28-29
    2.3 社会经济29
    2.4 水土流失与水土保持状况29-30
3 研究内容、方法与技术路线30-44
    3.1 研究内容30-31
    3.2 研究方法31-43
        3.2.1 数据来源31-32
        3.2.2 数据处理32-34
        3.2.3 土壤侵蚀及主要环境影响因子解译34-40
        3.2.4 土壤侵蚀敏感性评价40-42
        3.2.5 土壤侵蚀预测42-43
    3.3 技术路线43-44
4 结果与分析44-76
    4.1 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀格局44-47
        4.1.1 土壤侵蚀数量特征44
        4.1.2 土壤侵蚀空间分布格局44-47
    4.2 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀动态47-60
        4.2.1 土壤侵蚀时空变化特征47-50
        4.2.2 土壤侵蚀变化图谱50-57
        4.2.3 土壤侵蚀涨落势变化图谱57-59
        4.2.4 土壤侵蚀强度变化速率59-60
    4.3 土壤侵蚀敏感性评价60-67
        4.3.1 土壤侵蚀敏感性影响因子分析与评价60-63
        4.3.2 土壤侵蚀敏感性综合评价与空间格局分析63-66
        4.3.3 土壤侵蚀敏感性与土壤侵蚀强度比较66-67
    4.4 土壤侵蚀主要影响因素67-75
        4.4.1 植被因素67-69
        4.4.2 坡度因素69-71
        4.4.3 土地利用因素71-75
    4.5 土壤侵蚀预测75-76
5 讨论与结论76-82
    5.1 讨论76-77
        5.1.1 土壤侵蚀判读解译76-77
        5.1.2 土壤侵蚀治理77
    5.2 结论77-82
        5.2.1 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀格局特征78
        5.2.2 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀动态特征78-79
        5.2.3 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀敏感性79-80
        5.2.4 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀主要影响因素80-81
        5.2.5 桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀发展趋势81-82
参考文献82-88
致谢88-89
攻读学位期间发表论文情况89
        下载全文需89


本文地址:

上一篇:黄土丘陵区3个树种光合效率光响应过程及其模拟
下一篇:最后一页

分享到: 分享桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀特征及敏感性评价到腾讯微博           收藏
评论排行
频道总排行
频道本月排行
(); var h = cur.height(); $(this).find('.img-wrap img').LoadImage(true, w, h,'http://www.fabiao.net/statics/images/msg_img/loading.gif'); }); }) var _bdhmProtocol = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? " https://" : " http://"); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + _bdhmProtocol + "hm.baidu.com/h.js%3F4fe77876a18891357653cdbbd216a6a3' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E"));
-桐柏大别山区土壤侵蚀特征及敏感性评价-ѯ