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黄前流域景观格局现状与动态研究

Soil Erosion Characteristics and Sensitivity Evaluation in Tongbai-Ddabie Mountainous Area

作者: 专业:水土保持与荒漠化防治 导师:刘霞 年度:2010  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

        本文以黄前流域为研究区域,以1987、2008年遥感影像为主要信息源,结合野外实地调查及其他自然、社会经济辅助资料,基于地理信息系统强大的空间分析功能,分析2008年景观格局现状及1987-2008年景观格局动态变化规律,预测景观格局动态变化趋势,提出景观规划设计对策,为黄前流域区域生态环境保护提供科学依据。主要成果如下:1.阐明了黄前流域景观格局现状及变化(1)黄前流域景观格局现状以经济林、防护林为主。黄前流域面积为292.2km~2,耕地面积占景观总面积的5.41%,防护林占33.47%,经济林面积为145.97 km~2,占景观总面积的49.96%,其它用地分布面积较小。可见,2008年黄前流域景观格局总体特征是以经济林和防护林为主,构成研究区的优势景观类型,其他景观类型镶嵌分布其中,苗圃地和裸岩面积较少。(2)从整体景观水平上来看,研究区内的景观类型比较丰富,景观的多样性程度也较高,景观结构组成具有一定的复杂度。交通用地和城镇村及工矿用地的斑块密度最大,同时斑块平均面积最小,破碎度要高于其它景观类型。经济林和防护林的最大斑块指数最高,是景观中的优势类型。交通用地形状指数和分维数最大,所受干扰的强度较大,几何形状最复杂,而苗圃地的景观形状指数最小,景观形状规则。经济林的相似毗邻百分比和聚集度、斑块结合度指数最大,景观要素类型的聚集度较高,斑块分布比较集中,空间连通较好。(3)研究时段内,景观类型结构发生了明显变化,经济林、城镇村及工矿交通用地面积增加,耕地、防护林等其他用地面积减少。居优势地位的景观类型由防护林转变为经济林。耕地、防护林、水域及水利设施用地以及未利用地所占的面积比例下降,经济林和城镇村及交通用地在景观中所占的比例则有所增加。经济林面积增加主要来源于防护林和耕地;同时,经济林中有9.8km~2转变为其它景观类型,其减少的去向为防护林、和城镇村及工矿交通用地。从变化率来看,城镇村及工矿交通用地变化率最大,平均每年增加3.17%,耕地平均减少2.43%,耕地减少的部分主要转换成了经济林和城镇村及工矿交通用地。(4)研究时段内黄前流域的景观格局发生明显变化。景观中斑块密度、边缘密度增加,最大斑块指数和斑块平均面积指数一直在减小,景观破碎化程度加深。分维数变大,景观形状更加复杂,整个景观的边界褶皱程度变高。SHDI指数值增加,景观利用程度越来越丰富,景观的异质化程度呈上升趋势;而SHEI降低,景观结构并向不均匀化发展,景观类型所占比例差别增大。蔓延度减小,散布并列指数增大,景观要素类型空间分布不均衡,优势斑块类型的比例下降,其它几种斑块类型的优势度增加,斑块分布更为分散。2.预测了黄前流域景观格局变化趋势基于马尔柯夫模型预测,黄前流域耕地、防护林、水域及水利设施用地、未利用地面积在今后一段时期内仍呈减少趋势,防护林减少幅度仍较大,经济林所占比例总体上呈明显增长趋势。随着产业结构的逐步高度化,可以预计黄前流域未来10年宏观经济将保持稳定增长的趋势。这表明未来水土保持规划中,流域结构优化顺应市场需求,发展适销对路的经济林果业,加大经济林斑块的面积,奠定流域的经济基础,提高人民生活水平,同时兼顾生态环境保护功能。从趋势预测可以清楚看出,在经济、社会快速发展的背景下,景观结构发生了巨大的变化,且以经济林的空间扩张、防护林和耕地的减少为特征,城市化、经济建设和耕地保护的矛盾将更加突出,对景观格局规划和优化提出了更大的挑战。3.提出黄前流域景观生态规划建议按照黄前流域景观功能,并与周围地区的景观空间格局相联系,从空间结构上对研究区进行功能区的划分,并分别提出规划建议。对于生态环境保护区的规划,应该以现有林地保护为主,加强森林抚育,同时引进不同生活型和生长型的物种。对于经济林果区的规划,应缩减低产低效经济林,保护水环境,发展有价值的经济作物,形成商品化经济基地,奠定流域的经济基础。对于农业耕作区设计的规划,应发展以高产、高效、高质农业,大力推广节水灌溉等生态农业。对于水系风光区设计,可适度采用融景观设计、园艺设计于一体的手法,经人为景观创意与规划设计,将其建设成以综合开发为中心,以游赏为途径的旅游风景区。值得注意的是黄前水库作为泰安市主要饮水水源,必须要加强水质管理。
    In order to provide scientific basis for the regional environmental protection of Huangqian river, present situation of landscape pattern in 2008 and its dynamical characteristics from the year of 1987 to 2008 were analysised, dynamical changing trend of landscape pattern was predicted, and landscape planning and design was proposed in this paper, which chosen Huangqian river basin as the study area, took TM images in 1987 and ALOS images in 2008 as the main source of information, combined with field investigation and other natural , social and economic supporting data, based on geographic information system’s strong spatial analysis function.The main results are as follows:1 The present situation and change of landscape pattern of Huangqian river basin was clarified.(1)The main landscape pattern types were shelter forest and economic forest in Huangqian River. In 2008, the total landscape area of Huangqian river was 292.2 km~2, of which cultivated area accounted for 5.41% and shelter forest accounted for 33.47%. Area of economic forest was 145.97km~2, accounting for 49.96% of the total landscape area, and area of other types of land was smaller. Therefore, in Huangqian River the general characteristics of landscape pattern were based on shelter forest and economic forest which constituted the dominant landscape types in the study area. Of the main types, other types were mosaic distribution and nursery land and bare rockare were less.(2)On the whole, type and diversity of landscape were abundant in study area, and to some degree, structure composing of landscape in this area was complex. Patch density of traffic land, town and village land, and industrial and mining land was largest. Meanwhile, the average patch area of these types of land was smallest and their fragmentation degrees were larger than other landscape types. Economic forest and shelter forest were dominate types of the landscape which had the highest values of the maximum patch index. The shape index and fractal dimension of traffic land were biggest. This type of land was disturbed most and had the most complex geometric shape. Oppositely, landscape shape index of nursery land was smallest and its landscape shape was regular. Economic forest had the biggest similar adjacent percentage and aggregation indice and patch biding degree index, and higher aggregation indice of landscape factor type. In the same time, patches of economic forest land distributed concentratively and spacally connected well.(3) In study period, landscape type structure changed significantly, area of economic forest land, town and village land, industrial and mining land and traffic land increased while area of farmland and shelter forest.etc decreased. The dominate landscape type changed from shelter forest into economic forest. Area proportions of farmland, shelter forest, waters and water conservancy facilities land and unutilized land occuping the total landscape land decreased while that of economic forest, town and village and traffic land occuping the total landscape land increased. The increase of economic forest area main come from shelter forest and farmland. In the same time, there was about 9.8km~2 of economic forest changed into other landscape types such as shelter forest, town and village and industrial and mining land and traffic land. The changing rate of town and village and industrial and mining land and traffic land, which increased averately 3.17% each year, was largest. The farmland’s changing rate decreased 2.43% averately every year and its decreased part mainly changed into economic forest, town and village and industrial and mining land and traffic land.(4)Landscape patterns in Huangqian river changed obviously during the research period. In Study period, the patch density and edge density showing an overall increase, the largest patch index and mean patch size decreased gradually which prove a serious landscape fragmentation in the study period. Fractal dimension increase, landscape shapes tend to complex and irregular, and creased extent of the boundary increase gradually, Shannon diversity index increased, the landscape is becoming more extensive use, the degree of landscape heterogeneity increase. Shannon evenness index reduce, landscape structure tend to the uneven development, the proportion of different landscape types increased. With contag index decreasing and IJI index increasing, the spatial distribution of landscape elements are not balanced, the proportion of dominant patch type is decreased, and several other types increased, patch became ever more diffuse.2. Changing trend of landscape pattern in Huangqian river basin was predictedThe results of calculation using the Markov chain model indicated that the area of farmland, shelter forest, waters and water conservancy facilities and unutilized land would keep decreasing trend in a long time from now on. In addition, amplitude of shelter forest decreasing would remain large and the proportion of economic forest would increase clearly on the whole. As the promotion of industrial structure, macro-economy in Huangqian river basin would keep stable increasing in the future 10 years. The predicted trend indicated that landscape structure changed significantly in the background of economy and society rapidly developing, which characterized by the increase of economic forest and decrease of shelter forest and farmland. Therefore, contradiction between urbanization, economic construction and farmland protection would be more prominent, and landscape pattern planning and optimizing would face with greater challenges.3. Proposals of landscape ecological planning in Huangqian river basin was proposedIn accordance with landscape functions of the Huangqian river basin, associated with the surrounding spatial landscape pattern, the study area was divided into different functional zones from the spatial structure, and planning advices of each zone was posed. On the planning of ecological and environmental protection zone, existing forest should be protected first, then forest tending be strengthened and different species of life forms and growth forms be introduced. On the planning of economic forests, valuable cash crops should be continue to developed, form commercial economic base be formed and economic base of the Huangqian river basin be established. On the planning of agricultural cultivation area, high-yield, high-efficiency and high-quality agriculture should be developed and water saving irrigation agriculture be extended. Based on artificial landscape innovation and design, with the method of combining landscape design and gardening design, the water system secenic area should be established tourism scenic area which would center by comprehensive development and be maily used to tourism. It is worth noting that water quality management should be strenthened as Huangqian river is the main drinking water source of Taian.
        

黄前流域景观格局现状与动态研究

中文摘要7-10
Abstract10-12
1 引言13-20
    1.1 研究目的与意义13-14
    1.2 研究进展14-20
        1.2.1 景观生态学研究进展15-16
        1.2.2 景观格局研究进展16-18
        1.2.3 3S 技术在景观格局研究中的应用18-20
2 研究区概况20-23
    2.1 地理位置20
    2.2 自然概况20-21
        2.2.1 地形地貌20-21
        2.2.2 气候水文21
        2.2.3 生物资源21
    2.3 社会经济21-23
3 研究内容、方法与技术路线23-31
    3.1 研究内容23
    3.2 研究方法23-30
        3.2.1 数据源与资料收集23
        3.2.2 景观要素类型划分23-24
        3.2.3 信息源的处理24-30
    3.3 技术路线30-31
4 黄前流域景观格局现状与动态分析31-58
    4.1 景观格局指数的构建31-38
        4.1.1 景观格局指数的分类31-32
        4.1.2 景观指标的选取、计算及生态意义32-38
    4.2 景观格局现状分析38-44
        4.2.1 景观要素组成结构分析38
        4.2.2 景观要素类型格局现状分析38-44
    4.3 景观格局动态分析44-58
        4.3.1 景观各类型面积变化分析44-48
        4.3.2 景观要素类型面积转移矩阵48-49
        4.3.3 类型水平上景观格局变化分析49-56
        4.3.4 景观水平上格局变化分析56-58
5 Markov 模型的景观预测研究58-62
    5.1 Markov 模型58-59
    5.2 预测结果分析59-62
        5.2.1 转移概率矩阵的确定59-60
        5.2.2 预测结果分析60-62
6 黄前流域景观生态规划设计建议62-67
    6.1 黄前流域景观生态规划特征分析62
    6.2 小流域景观生态规划目标和原则62-64
        6.2.1 景观生态规划目标62-63
        6.2.2 景观生态规划原则63-64
    6.3 黄前流域景观生态总体规划64-67
        6.3.1 景观生态规划功能分区64-65
        6.3.2 景观生态规划设计建议65-67
7 结论与讨论67-71
    7.1 讨论67
    7.2 结论67-71
        7.2.1 黄前流域景观格局现状及变化67-69
        7.2.2 黄前流域景观格局动态变化趋势预测69-70
        7.2.3 黄前流域景观生态规划建议70-71
参考文献71-78
致谢78-79
攻读学位期间发表论文情况79
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