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玫瑰种质抗旱性评价及产果量数量遗传研究

Research on Evaluation of Drought Resistance and Quantitative Inheritance of Fruit Yield in Rosa Rugosa

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:丰震 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Rugosa rose, Provenance variation, Drought resistance, Quantitative Genetics, Grey relational analisis, Principal component analysis

        本研究是在对我国玫瑰(Rosa rugosa Thunb.)资源进行全面调查的基础上,对16个玫瑰试材的叶片含水量,叶片细胞膜透性,游离脯氨酸含量,可溶性糖含量及可溶性蛋白含量等5种生理生化指标的研究来初步比较玫瑰不同品种及不同种源野生玫瑰的抗旱性;并且通过“坐标综合评定法”对5个生理生化指标进行综合评定,对玫瑰试材的抗旱性能进行分析,判断抗旱性强弱,为生产提供理论指导和技术支持;通过灰色关联度分析(gray correlation analysis)确定了各性状与抗旱指数的关联度,并依据各品种的加权抗旱指数对试材进行了聚类分析。另外,研究8个玫瑰品种的10个果实数量性状与单株果实产量(y)关系,为遗传育种和资源研究提供理论参考,对果实相关数量性状进行相关,遗传力,通径分析;用灰色关联分析方法研究玫瑰数量性状与单株产量关系的密切程度;对玫瑰果实产量的重复力进行估计来预测玫瑰的单株产量;通过主成分分析评价品种的优劣。主要结论如下:1.随着干旱胁迫的加剧,各植物材料的五个生理生化指标呈现的趋势相似:叶片含水量逐渐下降,叶片电导率上升(细胞膜透性变大),游离脯氨酸和可溶性糖含量上升,而可溶性蛋白含量则先下降后上升,但各指标的变化程度因无性系的不同而异。2.本试验通过“坐标综合评定法”(张立钦等,2000)对5个生理生化指标进行综合评定,得到16种玫瑰无性系的抗旱性强弱,结果为山东牟平<山东荣成<赛西子<紫云<重瓣玫瑰<紫英缤纷<香刺果<吉林珲春<西子<紫龙卧池<唐白<紫雁<锦绣江山<唐红<刺果玫瑰<紫枝玫瑰。3.玫瑰的抗旱性与其种源的地理位置、年平均温度和年平均降水量有一定的关系。4.依据各品种的加权抗旱指数对参试品种进行了聚类分析,16种试验材料按照抗旱性可以分为3大类,A类包括锦绣江山等10个材料;B类包括唐红和唐白;C类包括紫雁等4个品种。其中较抗旱的有重瓣玫瑰,山东牟平,紫云。5.对8个玫瑰品种的果实产量及10个数量性状进行了遗传相关分析,结果表明:单株果实数、果实鲜重、果实长轴、果实短轴、果肉重、果实干重与单株果实产量之间呈极显著正相关,平均分枝数、株高、冠幅等性状与单株果实产量的遗传相关不显著。6.各个性状的遗传力都比较高,说明本试验的环境方差比较小,性状主要受遗传因素的控制。果实长轴的遗传力为0.8597,可以对它进行直接选择。决策系数的大小与遗传相关系数的大小排序并不一致,不能单独利用相关系数进行选择,通径分析和决策系数计算是必需的。7.提高玫瑰单株产花量的选育方法应采用多性状综合选择法,选用果实鲜重、东西冠幅、果肉重和果实干重这4个性状,以关联度为权重建立的玫瑰单株产果量的综合选择指数模型:I=+4.8464x2 + 0.2612x2- 3.4546 x9 -5.1007x10,综合选择指数估计的准确度=0.8871,综合育种值选择进展ΔH =245.8811,指数遗传力=0.9210。该研究结果对今后玫瑰高产果量品种的选育具有指导意义。8.方差分析的结果表明所测的所有数量性状间的差异均达到显著水平,其遗传方差表明各性状遗传差异是客观存在的。对单株产量的重复力分析的相对准确度均值达到0.9980;各个品种的重复力相当高,均值为0.9959,说明试验玫瑰品种的单株产量受遗传控制较大,受环境影响较弱;不同的品种的最大可能生产力不同。9.通过主成分分析对品种分成4类,第一类:‘唐白’、‘唐紫’和‘紫英缤纷’;第二类:‘紫枝玫瑰’;第三类:‘紫龙卧池’和‘紫雁’;第四类:‘唐红’和‘一品紫衣’。
    The article studied the comprehensive investigation in Rosa rugosa and preliminary research on 5 physiological and biochemical indexes(water content of leaf ,leaf relative conductivity, free proline content, soluble protein content and soluble sugar content) that measured in 16 rugosa rose materials. Based on it preliminary compare drought resistance of different cultivars of rugosa rose and different kinds of provenance variation rugosa rose. Through coordinate composite evaluation on 5 physiological and biochemical indexes, the results indicated that drought-resistance sequence of rugosa rose materials and provided the theoretical guidance and technical support. Gray correlation degrees were calculated between each trait and its drought tolerance index,and the cluster analysis based on the weighted drought-tolerance index of materials. The fruit yield/plant (y) and 10 quantitative traits of 8 rugosa rose cultivars were investigated,this will provide theoretic base for genetic resource research and breeding of Rugosa rose. Analysis of genetic correlation, heritability (hxy) and path analysis of fruits were carried out. The relation degree between each quantitative traits and the floral fruit yield/plant (y) were investigated by calculating gray correlation degrees. The repeatability of the fruit yield was estimated to forecast the floral fruit yield/plant. Evaluate the cultivars by analyzing principal component. The main results are as following:1.With the increase of drought stress level, the tendency of the 5 physiological and biochemical indexes in every material under drought stress were similar. The leaf relative conductivity, free praline content and soluble sugar content rose, water content of leaf decreased, and soluble protein content first decreased and then increased. And the change degree of the indexes was different due to different materials of clones.2.Through coordinate composite evaluation on 5 physiological and biochemical indexes, the results indicated that drought-resistance sequence of 15 clones were Shandong Muping, Shandong Rongchen, R. rugosa‘Saixizi’, R. rugosa‘Purple Cloud’, R. rugosa cv.‘Plena’, R. rugosa‘Ziyingbinfen’, R. rugosa‘Xiangciguo’, Jilin Huichun , R. rugosa‘Xizi’, R. rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’, R. rugosa‘Tang White’, R. rugosa‘Purple Goose’, R. rugosa‘Beautiful Homeland’, R. rugosa‘Tang Red’, R. rugosa‘Ciguomeigui’, R. rugosa‘Purple Branch’.3.Drought resistance of wild roses with their provenance location, the average annual mean temperature and precipitation has a certain relationship.4.The cluster analysis of experimental materials based on weighted drought-tolerance index. The results show that, in accordance with the drought tolerance 16 rugosa rose materials can be divided into 3 major categories: A category including 10 materials,such as R. rugosa‘Beautiful Homeland’etc.; B category including R. rugosa‘Tang Red’and R. rugosa‘Tang White’; C category including 4 varieties,such as R. rugosa‘Purple Goose’etc.. Materials that had the strongest drought tolerance were R. rugosa cv.‘Plena’, Shandong Muping, R. rugosa‘Purple Cloud’etc.5.The fruit yield/plant (y) and 10 quantitative traits of 8 rugosa rose cultivars were investigated. Analysis of genetic correlation was carried out. The results indicated: number of the fruits/ plant, fresh weight of the fruit, long axis of the fruit, short axis of the fruit, weight of the flesh, dry weight of the fruit had significant genetic correlation relationship with fruit yield/plant. And the average branch number, height of the plant, crown of the plant had no significant genetic correlation relationship with fruit yield/plant.6.The heritability of every character was high. It shows that the environment variance of this experimentation was small, and the character was mainly controlled by hereditary factor. The heritability of fruit axis was 0.8597, we could select it directly. The compositor of the decision coefficient and the genetic correlation coefficient was different. So using the correlation coefficient lonely can not be selected the character rightly. It was necessary to calculate by using the decision coefficient and the genetic correlation coefficient.7.It’s necessary to improve fruit yield/plant by multi-trait selection. The integration selection index equation of fruit yield/plant was established with the fresh weight of fruit, the east crown of plant, the weight of flesh and dry weight of the fruit. I=+4.8464x2+0.2612x2-3.4546x9-5.1007x10. Comprehensi- ve election index estimation accuracy=0.8871, selective response of the integration breeding value = 245.8811, index heritability = 0.9210. This will provide theoretic base for genetic breeding of rugosa rose.8.Variance analysis showed that the difference among the quantitative characters was significant, and genetic variance showed that genetic differenc- es among the various characters were an objective. The relative mean accuracy of the repeatability analysis was 0.9980. The repeatability of the yield per plant in every cultivar was great (0.9959). It show that yield per plant of the test rose varieties were influenced by the genetic mostly, but affected by environmental less. The greatest possible productivity of different varieties was dissimilar.9.The results show that, in accordance with the principal component analysis, 8 rugosa rose materials can be divided into 4 major categories: A category including R. rugosa‘Tang White’, R. rugosa‘Tang Purple’and R. rugosa‘Ziyingbinfen’; B category including R. rugosa‘Purple Branch’; C category including R. rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’and R. rugosa‘Purple Goose’; D category including R. rugosa‘Tang Red’and R. rugosa‘Yipinziyi’.
        

玫瑰种质抗旱性评价及产果量数量遗传研究

中文摘要8-11
Abstract11-13
引言14-26
    1.1 玫瑰种质资源研究现状16-17
    1.2 植物抗旱性研究现状17-23
        1.2.1 植物抗旱的研究方法和评价指标18-20
            1.2.1.1 植物抗旱的研究方法18-19
            1.2.1.2 植物抗旱的评价指标19-20
            1.2.1.3 抗旱性评价指标体系20
        1.2.2 植物对抗旱胁迫的反应20-23
    1.3 植物数量性状遗传的研究23-24
        1.3.1 数量性状遗传的研究23
        1.3.2 果实数量性状遗传的研究23-24
    1.4 发展趋势24
    1.5 本研究的目的与意义24-26
2 材料与方法26-34
    2.1 玫瑰抗旱性研究的材料与方法26-30
        2.1.1 试验材料及试验设计26-27
            2.1.1.1 试验材料26
            2.1.1.2 试验设计26-27
        2.1.2 试验地概况27
        2.1.3 试验方法27-29
            2.1.3.1 叶组织含水量27-28
            2.1.3.2 细胞膜透性的测定28
            2.1.3.3 游离脯氨酸含量的测定28
            2.1.3.4 可溶性糖含量的测定28
            2.1.3.5 可溶性蛋白含量的测定28-29
        2.1.4 数据处理29-30
            2.1.4.1 方差分析29
            2.1.4.2 坐标综合评定法29
            2.1.4.3 灰色关联度分析29-30
    2.2 玫瑰果实数量性状研究的材料与方法30-34
        2.2.1 试验材料及试验设计30
            2.2.1.1 试验材料30
        2.2.2 试验地概况30-31
        2.2.3 试验方法31-34
            2.2.3.1 玫瑰果实产量性状的遗传参数和选择效率的初步研究31-32
            2.2.3.2 玫瑰果实产量灰色分析及选择指数研究32
            2.2.3.3 玫瑰品种资源产量的生产潜力预测研究32
            2.2.3.4 玫瑰品种资源产量的主成分分析32-34
3 结果与分析34-70
    3.1 玫瑰抗旱性研究34-56
        3.1.1 水分胁迫下叶组织含水量的动态变化35-39
        3.1.2 水分胁迫下叶叶片细胞质膜透性的动态变化39-42
        3.1.3 水分胁迫下叶叶片游离脯氨酸的动态变化42-45
        3.1.4 水分胁迫下叶叶片可溶性糖的动态变化45-48
        3.1.5 水分胁迫下叶叶片可溶性蛋白的动态变化48-51
        3.1.6 水分胁迫下抗旱能力的综合比较51-52
        3.1.7 野生玫瑰的初步研究52-53
        3.1.8 水分胁迫下各生理生化指标的灰色关联度分析53-56
    3.2 玫瑰果实数量遗传性状研究56-70
        3.2.1 玫瑰果实产量性状的遗传参数和选择效率的初步研究56-61
            3.2.1.1 相关分析56
            3.2.1.2 遗传力分析56
            3.2.1.3 遗传系数通径分析56-61
        3.2.2 玫瑰果实产量灰色分析和选择指数研究61-64
            3.2.2.1 各数量性状与单株产果量的灰色关联度分析61
            3.2.2.2 综合选择指数61-64
        3.2.3 玫瑰品种资源产量的生产潜力预测研究64-65
            3.2.3.1 方差分析64
            3.2.3.2 重复力分析64-65
        3.2.4 玫瑰品种资源产量的主成分分析65-70
4 讨论70-75
    4.1 玫瑰抗旱性研究70-72
        4.1.1 玫瑰无性系品种及玫瑰地理种源的抗旱性研究70
        4.1.2 玫瑰抗旱性相关生理生化指标的灰色关联度分析70-71
        4.1.3 野生玫瑰抗旱性分析71-72
    4.2 玫瑰果实数量遗传性状研究72-75
        4.2.1 玫瑰果实产量性状的遗传参数和选择效率的初步研究72
        4.2.2 玫瑰果实产量灰色分析和选择指数研究72-73
        4.2.3 玫瑰品种资源产量的生产潜力预测研究73-74
        4.2.4 玫瑰品种资源产量的主成分分析74-75
5 结论75-77
    5.1 玫瑰抗旱性研究75
    5.2 玫瑰果实数量遗传性状研究75-77
        5.2.1 玫瑰果实产量性状的遗传参数和选择效率的初步研究75-76
        5.2.2 玫瑰果实产量灰色分析和选择指数研究76
        5.2.3 玫瑰品种资源产量的生产潜力预测研究76
        5.2.4 玫瑰品种资源产量的主成分分析76-77
参考文献77-85
致谢85-86
攻读硕士学位期间发表的论文目录86
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