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青岛市宗教园林历史文化内涵及环境特征研究

The Research on the Historical and Cultural Connotation and the Environmental Characteristics of Qingdao

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:陈东田 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Religious Landscape, Qingdao, historical and cultural connotation, environmental characteristics

        宗教园林是世界园林艺术的一颗耀眼的明珠,在其它园林类型的原有功能已相去甚远的今天,它仍因其宗教功能,至今全部保留或部分保留着原有静穆肃严的氛围,并随着各个时代的功能需求而发展、变迁,以其独特的风姿展现在世人面前,成为人们向往的宗教旅游胜地。随着宗教旅游热的不断升温,我国的佛寺、道观,乃至一些教堂景观大都被开发为旅游度假的胜地,但是由于保护不够、错位开发、盲目跟风,不少宗教旅游风景区被人工化、模式化和商业化,不少宗教园林的自然度、美感度和灵感度严重下降,建造模式千篇一律,自然生态遭到破坏,文明的瑰宝、城市的坐标逐渐失去了其原有的地域性、民族性和传承性。本论文选取了中西方文化交融的代表城市之一——青岛作为研究区域,将中西合璧的青岛宗教园林作为研究对象。首先介绍了研究的理论基础——宗教文化和宗教园林:宗教园林是宗教文化的组成部分,宗教文化的特征和功能决定着宗教园林的特点,不同宗教园林又反过来反映出宗教文化的差异。接着介绍了青岛市道观园林、佛寺园林和教堂景观等宗教园林的产生与发展。进而从历史和宗教文化出发分析了宗教园林的内涵:道观园林体现自然主义,佛教园林体现解脱主义,教堂景观体现神权主义。宗教园林是宗教文化的外在体现,是被物化了的精神世界。然后从选址、建筑布局、空间意境和植物配置四个方面论述了青岛市宗教园林的环境特征,总结出中西方文化的碰撞与交融在宗教园林方面的表现:中西方的宗教园林因其宗教思想、宗教文化的差异,在环境特征上区别明显。然而,无论中西,青岛市宗教园林环境特征中或多或少的存在一些相通之处,如选址方面都喜欢在风景迤逦之处“择高”而建;建筑布局都“序中有变”,而总体布局则都“变中有序”;意境塑造都采用了对比、借景等手法,形成一幅园内园外连绵不断的风景画;植物造景自然丰富,植物种类中西结合。最后指出:青岛的历史和文化造就了青岛市宗教园林的独特气质——中西合璧、天人合一的山水画卷。提出了青岛市宗教园林保持生命力和地方特色的课题,呼吁大家为青岛市宗教园林的保护与更新贡献力量。
    Religious Landscape is a bright pearl of the art of Landscape. Although the functions of other types of Landscape has been died away, today it still reserves all or part of the solemn and quiet atmosphere because of its religious function. The Religious Landscape is developing and changing due to the functional requirements of different Times. It opens out its graceful bearing to the world and became one of the religious tourist resorts which people yearning.With the religious tour is more and more popular, more and more temples and churches become to the holiday resort. But because of lack of protection, improper development and eyeless copy, many religious tourist resorts are artificial, stereotyped, and commercial. The naturalness, artistry and flexibility of many religious landscapes are reducing seriously. Building model is unchangeable, and entironment is damaged. Religious Landscape which is the treasure of the civilization and the label of the city is losing it’s regional、ethical and inherited characteristics.This thesis choses Qingdao as the research areas, who is one of the typical cities have the both chinese and western cultures, and chose the religious landscape of Qingdao as the research object, which is a good combination of Chinese and Western elements. The thesis introduces the theoretical basis-Religious Cultural and Religious Landscape: Religious Landscape is a part of Religious Cultural. The features and functions of Religious Cultural influence the Religious Landscape’s characteristics, contrarily different Religious Landscape reflects the different Religious Cultural. The thesis introduces the formation and development of Qingdao’s religious landscape, including the landscape of Taoist tempels, Buddhist temples and the churches. The thesis analyses the connotation of Qingdao’s religious landscape start from history and religious culture: landscape of Taoist temples embodises naturalism, landscape of Buddhist temples embodises Moksa and landscape of the churches embodises religious authority. Religious Landscape is external of Religious Cultural and it is the physical type of psychic world. The thesis discuss the environmental features of Qingdao’s religious landscape from the location, the buildings and layout, the space and the ideorealm and plants configuration four aspects., to sum up the representation in Religious Landscape’s because of the clash and the blend in chinese and western culture: Environmental characteristics of Religious Landscape in China and in western coutries are different greatly because of the difference of their religious culture. But the environmental characteristics of Qingdao’s religious landscape, no matter the Chinese style or western style, have more or less the same parts. For example: They are likely to buiding on the higher and beautiful places; The layout of buildings is inerratic with little changes while the entire layout is variable with the rules; They are forming a continuous landscape from inside to outside the garden by contrast and“borrowing scenery”; Plants configuration is natural and plentiful and plant’s kinds are succeed in combinding chinese with western’s. Finally, the thesis points out that the history and the culture trained the special temperament of Qingdao’s religious landscape——a landscape painting that chinese elements combined with western ones and humanity harmonized with nature. It raised the issue of how to keep the vitality and local characteristics of Qingdao’s religious landscape.It also appeals people to contribute to the protection and renovation of Religious Landscape.
        

青岛市宗教园林历史文化内涵及环境特征研究

中文摘要7-9
英文摘要9-10
1 引言11-24
    1.1 本文选题的背景、目的11-12
    1.2 本文选题的意义12
    1.3 本文选题的国内外发展现状及研究动态12-20
        1.3.1 国外宗教园林的发展现状与研究动态12-17
        1.3.2 国内宗教园林的发展和研究现状17-20
    1.4 本文的研究内容20-21
    1.5 本文的研究方法及技术路线21-24
        1.5.1 本文的研究方法21-22
        1.5.2 本文的技术路线22-24
2 宗教与宗教文化24-29
    2.1 相关概念24
    2.2 宗教文化的内容24-25
    2.3 宗教文化的特征25-26
    2.4 宗教文化的功能与现代价值26-29
        2.4.1 宗教文化的功能、26-27
        2.4.2 宗教文化的现代价值27-29
3 宗教园林概述29-31
    3.1 宗教园林的定义29
    3.2 宗教园林的类型29-30
        3.2.1 根据所属的宗教类别来分29-30
        3.2.2 根据所处的地理位置来分30
        3.2.3 根据园林与宗教场所的关系来分30
    3.3 宗教园林的特点30-31
        3.3.1 宗教性30
        3.3.2 人文性30-31
        3.3.3 景观性31
4 青岛宗教园林的产生与发展31-36
    4.1 青岛市寺庙园林的产生与发展31-34
        4.1.1 青岛市道观园林的变迁历史31-33
        4.1.2 青岛市佛寺园林的历史沿革33-34
    4.2 青岛市教堂景观的产生与发展34-36
5 青岛宗教园林的历史文化内涵36-39
    5.1 自然主义与道观园林36-38
    5.2 解脱主义与佛寺园林38-39
    5.3 神权主义与教堂景观39
    5.4 小结39
6 青岛宗教园林的环境特征39-67
    6.1 选址特点39-43
        6.1.1 青岛市地貌特征39-40
        6.1.2 青岛宗教园林的选址40-43
    6.2 建筑布局43-48
        6.2.1 建筑单体43-44
        6.2.2 建筑群体布局44-47
        6.2.3 总体布局47-48
    6.3 空间意境48-53
        6.3.1 宗教园林的空间48-51
        6.3.2 意境塑造的手法51-53
    6.4 植物配置53-67
        6.4.1 植物配置方式53-56
        6.4.2 植物种类56-67
    6.5 小结67
7 结语67-69
图表目录69-71
参考文献71-75
致谢75-76
攻读学位期间发表论文情况76
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