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济南滨水绿化现状与植物景观调查研究

Investigation on Waterfront Greening Situation and the Plants Scenery Design in Jinan City

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:臧德奎 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Waterfront plant, Landscape Community, Patten of deployment, Jinan

        本文以济南滨水绿地植物景观为研究对象,采取实地调研的方法对济南11个各类滨水区进行调查,调查内容为滨水地带景观组成中的植物种类、生长状况、群落结构、应用方式等,计算了每种出现的频度,分析济南滨水区绿化树种的植物景观的现状和存在的问题。调查表明,济南滨水绿地应用植物共有140种,隶属于53科,其中木本植物96种,草本植物44种。大部分公园及滨河绿地的滨水植物群落主要由驳岸植物群落和岸上植物群落组成,具有较丰富的水面植物群落的仅有大明湖、百脉泉、泉城公园等。通过频度分析,发现乔木层中垂柳、雪松、白皮松、法桐为常见种,垂柳在多数情况下为优势种和丰富种,这样造成植物景观的单调和雷同,同时发现部分树种不耐水湿,却大量应用于水边造景,造成生长不良,在调查样地内发现白榆、栾树、黄金树、沙梨、元宝枫、苦楝、小叶杨等生长状况和观赏效果皆优的树种应用较少;灌木层中耐水湿树种应用极少,其他可用的灌木有沙棘、柽柳、桂香柳、石榴、蔷薇、紫穗槐、木槿等。水生植物层常用种类为荷花、睡莲、黑藻等,应用种类偏少且发现了入侵植物豚草,应加强对千屈菜、水葱、鸢尾、香蒲、菖蒲、花叶芦竹、风车草、花叶芦苇、梭鱼草、田字萍的应用。地被以麦冬、早熟禾为优势,在一些新景区内应用了较多的观花地被,丰富了景观层次,而一些早期开发的景区地被应用种类比较单调、重复,景观效果不好。济南滨水植物景观的植物群落结构类型主要有:“乔木+草本地被”结构、“乔木+灌木”结构和“乔木+灌木+草本地被”结构3种。总体上“乔木+灌木+草本地被”结构所占比例较大,但是灌木和地被层的植物常用种类均很少而且各在水体类型中重复率较高,各景区之间配置应用上有单调、雷同、凌乱等问题存在。针对济南滨水绿地植物景观的现状,经过整理、总结和筛选,推荐适宜于济南滨水区不同水体(湖、河、泉、池、喷泉跌水)及不同生态条件(较耐水湿、极耐水湿、耐碱涝)下应用的27种植物配置模式。并且分别研究了滨水区常见的堤、岛、桥等的植物配置方法,及驳岸和道路的设置。最后在实地调研和文献研究的基础上,总结济南市滨水植物景观存在的问题,提出充分考虑植物自身特性、与历史文脉的结合、增加水生植物的种类和数量、丰富植物配置模式以及控制外来入侵物种等建议。
    The main subjects of study for this article are the landscape of waterfont plant in Jinan, and the field research approach to 11 kinds of waterfront survey as the method. The study included landscape composition of plant species, growth conditions, community structure, and application ways. Then we calculated for each frequency, analyzed the situations and problems of plant status used in landscape tree species.The surveys showed that 140 waterfront plants belonging to 53 families were applied. There included 96 woody plants and 44 species of herbs. Most of the parks and riverside green space composed waterfront communities and plant communities in the shore communities from the revetment. There were abundant water plants only including Daming Lake, Lotus Springs, Park Springs.By frequency analysis, we found that the common weeping species includes Salix babylonica, Cedrus deodara, Pinus bungeana and Platanus orientalis. In most cases Salix babylonica were the dominant and abundant species, and it caused that landscape plants was monotony and similar. We also found that some species were not tolerant for water wet, but a large number of them were used and in poor growth. Some growth conditions well and excellent ornamental tree, such as Ulmus pumila, Koelreuteria paniculata ,Catalpa speciosa, Acer truncatum Bunge, Melia azedarach , Populus simonii were seldom used; bush layer of water-wet application of rare species, other available species included shrub Hippophae rhamnoides , Tamarix chinensis, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Punica granatum , Rosa, Amorphafruticosa, Hibiscus syriacus and so on. Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea alba, Hydrilla verticillata were commonly used as aquatic plants. Ragweed, few types of applications, was founded as invasive plant. Lythrum salicaria , Scirpus validus , Iris tectorum, Typha orientalis , Acorus calamus , Arundo donax var. versicolor , Cyperus alternifolius, Pontederia cordata , Marsilea quadrifolia should be applied. Radix and bluegrass were dominant species in the use of ground cover plants. Some flowers were applied in the new scenic view which enriched the landscape level. But some of the early scenic spots were monotonous, duplicated and bad landscape effects.There were 3 plant community structure types in jinan waterfront landscape plants, included‘Arbor and herbage’structure,‘Arbor and shrub’structure and‘Arbor, shrub and herbage’structure. There were large proportion of the‘Arbor, shrub and herbage’structure, but only a few Arbor and shrub plant were applied with high repetition rate. The plant configuration was monotonous, duplicated, disordered and other problems.Based on the landscape status of waterfront greenland in jinan, it recommended 27 models of plant arrangement suitable for different waterbodies(lake,river,spring,pool ,fountain) or different ecological conditions (water tolerant, water tolerant extremely, alkali and water resistance)according to select and summary .. And we also studied the common plant configuration in dike, Island, bridges, embankment and road. Finally, based on the field research and literature, we sumed of problems of Jinan City waterfront landscape plant, suggested that it should make full account of its characteristic plants and combine with historical context, increase the types and quantities of aquatic plants, be rich in plant configuration mode, and control invasive alien species and so on.
        

济南滨水绿化现状与植物景观调查研究

中文摘要6-8
Abstract8-10
1 引言11-23
    1.1 研究背景、目的和意义11-13
        1.1.1 研究背景11
        1.1.2 研究目的和意义11-13
    1.2 滨水植物景观的相关概念13-14
    1.3 城市滨水植物景观的研究历史、现状14-19
        1.3.1 国外城市滨水植物景观发展概况14-16
        1.3.2 国内城市滨水景观发展概况16-19
    1.4 滨水区植物景观特点及营造原则19-23
        1.4.1 园林植物与水体的关系19-20
        1.4.2 滨水园林植物资源特色20-21
        1.4.3 滨水植物景观营造原则21-23
2 济南市自然和人文地理概况23-25
    2.1 自然条件23
    2.2 人文景观及独特的泉水文化23-25
3 研究内容25-28
    3.1 研究内容25
    3.2 调查研究地点25
    3.3 研究方法25-28
4 结果与分析28-61
    4.1 济南市滨水植物种类及总体特征28-35
        4.1.1 滨水绿地植物种类及频度分析28-34
        4.1.2 济南滨水植物群落的总体特征及类型34-35
    4.2 不同绿地类型的济南滨水植物景观分析35-48
        4.2.1 城市广场水体35-36
        4.2.2 城市公园水体36-43
        4.2.3 风景名胜区水体43-47
        4.2.4 小结47-48
    4.3 济南滨水植物配置模式优化48-61
        4.3.1 按水体类型来分48-53
        4.3.2 按生态条件分53-56
        4.3.3 驳岸、堤、岛、桥等的植物景观设计56-59
        4.3.4 水面植物的配置59-61
5 讨论61-64
    5.1 充分考虑植物的自身特性61
    5.2 注意与历史文化的结合61-62
    5.3 增加水生植物的种类和数量62
    5.4 丰富植物配置模式62-63
    5.5 地被植物的应用63
    5.6 控制外来入侵物种63-64
6 结论64-66
参考文献66-71
致谢71-72
攻读学位期间发表论文与社会实践72
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