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桂花对低温胁迫适应性的研究

Research on Adaptability Under Low Temperature Stress in Osmanthus Fragrans

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:臧德奎 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Osmanthus fragrans, low temperature stress, physiological and biochemical, comprehensive evaluation

        桂花是中国十大传统名花之一,是重要的园林绿化树种,也是传统的芳香植物,但在北方地区,由于低温的限制,桂花的露地栽培存在一定困难,目前难以大面积推广应用。因此,开展桂花的抗寒性研究,对桂花的进一步引种和栽培具有重要意义。本研究从生理的角度对桂花进行抗寒性分析,采用人工低温处理和自然低温相结合的方式,测定了桂花在低温下的一些生理生化指标,包括相对电导率、SOD、POD、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、脯氨酸、丙二醛和相对含水量,并进行不同品种间的抗寒性比较,筛选出抗寒性强的品种,探讨其抗寒机制,初步得出以下结论:1.在人工低温处理条件下,随着处理温度的下降,桂花各个品种的电导率均呈增大的趋势,不同品种电导率发生突跃时的温度略有差异,用Logistic方程确定了各品种的半致死温度(LT50),半致死温度较低的是速生金桂、朱砂丹桂、小叶四季桂。除了低温以外,早春的干旱也是影响其存活的重要因素。2.人工低温处理条件下,SOD呈现出下降——上升——下降的趋势,温度高于-6℃时呈现下降趋势,随后随着温度的降低开始回升,温度降至-24℃以下后又下降。POD基本一直在下降,其中早银桂和朱砂丹桂在半致死温度附近略有回升,之后急剧下降,其它品种一直呈平缓下降趋势。经方差分析,SOD活性较高的是早银桂和球桂,POD活性较高的是金球桂、晚银桂和朱砂丹桂。3.对人工低温处理下渗透调节物质含量进行分析,脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白含量一直呈下降趋势,可溶性糖含量起初略有上升,然后开始下降,到达半致死温度附近后含量大增,可能是受到伤害所致。无论从人工低温还是从自然低温测定结果来看,桂花体内渗透调节物质的积累能力较差,表现出对低温的不良适应性。4.人工低温处理条件下,丙二醛含量起初有所降低,后期又有所升高,但总体变化不明显,自然低温下也呈现出降低趋势。总体来看,无论从品种间的比较还是从变化趋势上来看,丙二醛含量和抗寒性的关系不密切。5.自然低温下,从相对含水量上来分析不同品种的适应性,发现保水能力较强的有晚银桂、球桂、金球桂和小叶四季桂。越冬以后,各个品种的相对含水量都已经降到40%以下,低温造成的生理干旱是导致桂花受冻死亡的重要原因。6.从测得的各生理指标与抗寒性的关系来看,桂花的各个生理指标之间相对比较独立,相关性不强,单一指标与抗寒性关系并不完全一致,只有把各指标综合起来分析才能对比出品种间抗寒性强弱,隶属函数法和主成分分析法的分析结果与实际观测有着很好的一致性,是评价桂花抗寒性较为可靠的方法。运用隶属函数法、主成分分析和聚类分析等方法对12个桂花品种进行综合分析和评价,得出抗寒性较好的品种是晚银桂、速生金桂、朱砂丹桂、小叶四季桂、早银桂和球桂,推荐在北方园林中应用。
    Osmanthus fragrans is one of the traditional ten kinds of flowers of China, is one of the important landscape greening tree, and it is also the traditional fragrant plant, but in the north of China, due to the limits of low temperature, some difficulties exist in the open air cultivation of O. fragrans, in the present it can not be widely used. Therefore, the research on cold resistant of O. fragrans is of far reaching importance in the introduction and cultivation.This research did cold resistant analysis on O. fragrans form the physiological point, by the way of combination of artifical low temperature and natural low temperature, measured some physiological and biochemical indexes at low temperatures of the O. fragrans, including the relative conductivity, SOD, POD, soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, malondialdehyde, and relative water content, made comparisons between different cultivars, selected cold tolerant cultivars, preliminarily drew the following conclusions:In the artificial low temperature treatment, by the decreasing of temperature, the relative conductivity of each O. fragrans cultivar showed a trend of increasing, only the temperature when the conductivity abrupt change is slightly different, calculated the semi-lethal temperature (LT50) of varieties with the logistic equation, cultivars has lower semi-lethal temperature are O.‘Susheng Jingui’, O.‘Zhusha Dangui’, O.‘Xiaoye Sijigui’. Besides the low temperature, the drought of early spring is also an important factor affecting the survival.In the artificial low temperature treatment, the SOD showed the trend of“decrease - increase - decrease”, when the temperature is higher than -6℃it decreased, then began to rise as the temperature decreased, after the temperature dropped to -24℃, it decreased again. The POD is declining almost from beginning to end, among the cultivars, the POD of O.‘Zao Yingui’and O.‘Zhusha Dangui’increased slightly near the semi-lethal temperature, and then sharply decreased, while others decreased slowly from beginning to end. by the Analysis of variance, SOD activity was higher in the O.‘Zao Yingui’and O.‘Qiugui’, POD activity was higher in the O.‘Jinqiu’, O.‘Wan Yingui’and O.‘Zhusha Dangui’than others.On the analysis of osmotic adjustment substances, under low temperature, the content of proline and soluble protein was decreasing all the time, the soluble sugar content increased slightly at first, and then begin to decline, and greatly increased near the semi-lethal temperature, it may be the result of injury. From the view of both artificial low temperature and low temperature from the natural, poor the osmotic adjustment ability of O. fragrans is poor, showing poor adaptation to low temperature.In the artificial low temperature treatment, decreased at first, later increased, but overall did not change significantly, in the natural low temperature it also showed a trend of decreasing, either seen from the comparisons between cultivars or from the change trend, the MDA content and cold tolerance are not closely related. Under natural low temperature, analysis the adaptability of different cultivars from the relative water content, found that the water-retention capacity are strong in O.‘Wan Yingui’, O.‘Qiugui’, O.‘Jinqiu’and O.‘Xiaoye Sijigui’. After winter, the relative water content of all cultivars have dropped to below 40%, physiological drought caused by low temperature is an important cause of death.Analyze from the relationship between each physiological index and cold resistance, the physiological indexes of O. fragrans are relatively independent, correlation is not obvious, a single index and cold tolerance are not fully consistent, only analyze the index together can we contrast the cold tolerance of varieties. The results of subordinate function and principal component analysis are very consistent with the observed results, are reliable methods to evaluate the cold resistant ability of O. fragrans. Use the method of subordinate function, principal component analysis and cluster analysis on a comprehensive evaluation of 12 Osmanthus fragrans cultivars, inferred the cultivars with good cold resistant are O.‘Wan Yingui’, O.‘Susheng Jingui’, O.‘Zhusha Dangui’, O.‘Xiaoye Sijigui’, O.‘Zao Yingui’and O.‘Qiugui’, recommended application in the north gardens.
        

桂花对低温胁迫适应性的研究

中文摘要7-9
Abstract9-10
1 引言11-28
    1.1 桂花研究现状11-14
        1.1.1 桂花的地理分布11
        1.1.2 桂花的生长习性和繁殖栽培研究11-12
        1.1.3 桂花的品种分类研究12-13
        1.1.4 桂花的应用现状研究13-14
    1.2 植物抗寒生理研究现状14-26
        1.2.1 低温对植物伤害的机理14-15
        1.2.2 植物根据抗寒性的分类15-16
        1.2.3 植物抗寒性研究方法16-25
        1.2.4 桂花抗寒性研究概况25-26
    1.3 本研究目的和意义26-28
2 材料与方法28-36
    2.1 试验地概况28
    2.2 试验材料28-29
    2.3 研究方法29-36
        2.3.1 材料处理29
        2.3.2 测定指标29-35
        2.3.3 统计分析35-36
3 结果与分析36-68
    3.1 电导率分析36-40
        3.1.1 人工低温处理电导率变化36-38
        3.1.2 自然低温下电导率变化38-40
    3.2 SOD 活性分析40-43
        3.2.1 人工低温处理SOD 活性变化40-42
        3.2.2 自然低温下SOD 活性变化42-43
    3.3 POD 活性分析43-47
        3.3.1 人工低温处理POD 活性变化43-45
        3.3.2 自然低温下POD 活性变化45-47
    3.4 可溶性蛋白含量分析47-50
        3.4.1 人工低温处理可溶性蛋白含量变化47-49
        3.4.2 自然低温下可溶性蛋白含量变化49-50
    3.5 可溶性糖含量分析50-54
        3.5.1 人工低温处理可溶性糖含量变化50-52
        3.5.2 自然低温下可溶性糖含量变化52-54
    3.6 脯氨酸含量分析54-57
        3.6.1 人工低温处理脯氨酸含量变化54-56
        3.6.2 自然低温下脯氨酸含量变化56-57
    3.7 丙二醛含量分析57-60
        3.7.1 人工低温处理丙二醛含量变化57-59
        3.7.2 自然低温下丙二醛含量变化59-60
    3.8 自然低温下相对含水量变化60-61
    3.9 不同桂花品种抗寒性的综合评价61-68
        3.9.1 低温胁迫处理下桂花品种综合生理指标隶属函数值的计算62-63
        3.9.2 低温胁迫处理下桂花品种生理指标的主成分分析63-65
        3.9.3 不同桂花品种间的聚类分析65
        3.9.4 不同抗寒性指标间的相关分析和R 型聚类65-68
4 讨论68-71
    4.1 桂花抗寒性和膜系统的关系68-69
        4.1.1 电导率与抗寒性68
        4.1.2 丙二醛与抗寒性68-69
    4.2 桂花抗寒性和保护酶系统的关系69
    4.3 桂花抗寒性和渗透调节物质的关系69-70
    4.4 桂花抗寒性和相对含水量的关系70
    4.5 不同桂花品种抗寒性的综合评价70
    4.6 抗寒性和品种群的关系70-71
5 结论71-72
参考文献72-78
致谢78-79
攻读硕士学位期间发表的学术论文目录79
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