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蒙阴县毛坪小流域生态修复示范工程生态效益监测与评价

Monitoring and Evaluation of Ecological Benefit of the Ecological Rehabilitation Region in the Maoping Watershed of Mengyin County

作者: 专业:水土保持与荒漠化防治 导师:高鹏 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

ecological rehabilitation, soil and water conservation, fractal dimension, plant diversity, the water accumulation and containing efficiency

        通过大面积宏观调查与典型标准样地微观测试相结合的方法,对蒙阴县毛坪小流域生态修复示范工程的植物多样性、土壤物理性质、蓄水保水效益和空气负离子等生态效益进行了监测与评价研究,结果表明该流域生态修复工程取得了明显的生态效益。主要结论如下:1、生态修复后研究区内植物群落物种多样性和丰富度显著提高。其中有林地封禁型植物群落的物种丰富度和多样性指数高于其它修复类型。无论天然次生林或人工林混交林群落的生物多样性均优于单纯林。在农地保育修复措施中,以梯田封禁后物种多样性提高效果较大,梯田封育型次之。因此,从增加生物多样性、提高生态效应的角度出发,对修复区内的林果梯田应尽量全面封禁,禁止农事活动或尽量减少对林地的耕作抚育。对陡坡作物梯田封禁后,依据宜乔则乔、宜灌则灌的原则,应尽量引入适当的树种进行造林,以促进生物多样性的恢复与提高。2、生态修复工程区土壤结构与水分状况明显改善、孔隙度提高。从土壤粒径不均匀系数来看,生态林封禁类型中,天然次生林地的高于人工林的,平均比人工林高59.2%;混交林土壤粒径不均系数大于单纯林的,比单纯林高52.63%。从分形维数来看,生态林封禁类型中,天然次生林土壤分形维数平均值高于人工林。无论是天然次生林或人工林,混交林土壤分形维数(平均值为2.666)都高于单纯林(平均值为2.444)。从土壤容重来看,生态林封禁类型中,天然次生林土壤容重小于人工林。无论是天然次生林或人工林,混交林土壤容重(平均值为1.176g/cm~3)均小于单纯林(平均值为1.287g/cm~3)。疏林补植、荒坡造林植物群落修复后土壤容重分别比修复前减小了0.116g/cm~3、0.238g/cm~3。从土壤孔隙度来看,有林地封禁类型中,天然次生林土壤孔隙状况优于人工林。无论是天然次生林或人工林,混交林土壤总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度和非毛管孔隙度都优于单纯林。可见各修复措施能均较好的改良土壤孔隙状况,增加土壤的通透性。生态修复后各植物群落的土壤粒径不均匀系数、土壤分形维数和土壤容重和土壤孔隙状况等土壤结构参数均优于修复前,即修复后土壤粒径不均匀性、土壤团粒结构、土壤容重和土壤通透性均比修复前好。无论是天然次生林还是人工林,混交林的土壤结构特性和孔隙度各参数均优于单纯林,因此植被恢复时应注意多树种相结合,更利于林分土壤结构的改良。3、生态修复工程区土壤蓄水保水效益明显增加。从土壤贮水量来看,生态林封禁类型中,天然次生林饱和贮水量和滞留贮水量(平均值分别为1262.4t/hm~2和323.4t/hm~2)明显高于人工林(平均值为1103.6t/hm~2和244.3t/hm~2)。疏林补植、荒坡造林林地土壤饱和贮水量,较修复前分别提高10.5%和6.6%。在农地保育修复措施中,坡改梯高效经济林与水保耕作技术、坡改梯农林复合与水保耕作技术的土壤饱和贮水量、吸持贮水量或滞留贮水量都有明显增加。从土壤入渗速率来看,无论天然次生林或人工林封禁类型,其混交林封禁型土壤的入渗能力优于单纯林,混交林地土壤平均稳渗速率为6.89mm/min,比单纯林地要高2.36mm/min。实施残疏林补植更新、荒坡人工造林技术措施后,其土壤入渗速率分别提高了2.01mm/min和3.30mm/min。在农地保育修复措施中,坡改梯高效经济林与水保耕作技术、坡改梯农林复合与水保耕作技术的土壤入渗能力明显提高,缓坡梯田苹果修复型的土壤入渗能力提高了1.44mm/min。4、生态修复工程区空气负离子浓度有所提高。生态林封禁的土壤空气负离子浓度的FCI值平均为0.785,生态林林分郁闭度比较大,林中空气流通比较小,空气负离子浓度比较小,所以FCI值比较小。疏林补植侧柏空气负离子浓度的FCI比修复前的0.26增加到0.84,提高了0.62,提高了238%。荒坡造林类型中黑松、板栗林的空气负离子浓度的FCI值均提高(1.10和1.96),比修复前(0.48)提高了(129%和308%)。农田保育修复类型中,坡改梯高效经济林与水保耕作技术、坡改梯农林复合与水保耕作技术的空气负子浓度FCI均比修复前有所提高。5、不同生态修复措施中,残疏林补植更新技术的关联度为0.9228,其次是坡改梯高效经济林与水保耕作技术关联度为0.9023,最小的是天然次生林封禁保护技术关联度为0.5423。因此,在做好原有天然次生林封禁的同时,应加大对研究区内疏林补植措施和坡改梯高效经济林与水保耕作技术措施的实施力度。
    Study on Plant Diversity, soil physical, soil physical properties, water retention benefit, negative air ions in the area of soil and water conservation and ecological rehabilitation. The research of ecological restoration project has obvious ecological benefit. Main conclusions are as follows:1、Each plant diversity and richness improved after ecological restoration project. richness indexes (DMA), Shannon - Wiener’ s diversity index (H’) of protected forest is higher than other types of repair. Richness of the mixed forest is higher than that of pure forest. In land conservation measures, Richness of protected terrace is improver than cultivating terrace. Therefore, in order to increasing and improving the ecological effects of biological diversity, to repair the area should be fully banned feeding terrace, prohibit all farming activities or reduce the cradle of farming land. After the terrace of steep crops, basis should be banned, should try to introduce appropriate for afforestation trees, to promote and improve the recovery of biodiversity.2、The soil non-uniform coefficient of ecological forest is higher 59.2% than plantedforest. Soil non-uniform coefficient of mixed forest higher 52.63 % than pure forest, soil fractal dimension (average for 2.666) is higher than the average of pure forest (2.444). Whether natural or plantedforest,soil density (average for 1.176 g/cm~3) of mixed forest were less than pure forest (average for 1.287 g/cm~3). The hillsides planting afforestation plant communities after the repair soil density than before repair reduced 0.116 g/cm~3, 0.238 g/cm~3,Two types of farmland conservation measures after repair than before repair a significant reduction. Whether natural or mixed plantations, soil porosity, capillary porosity and the capillary porosity are superior to pure forest. The repair measures can be seen all good soil porosity, permeability increase of soil. Ecological restoration of plant communities after the soil particle non-uniform coefficient, the fractal dimension of soil and soil and soil porosity density condition of soil structure parameters as superior to repair, namely after before repair soil particle inhomogeneity, soil and soil density and soil full-transparency than before repair. Whether natural or plantation, the structural characteristics of soil mixed with porosity parameters are superior to pure forest, therefore vegetation restoration should pay attention to the combination of multiple tree species, favors the forest soil structure.3、Soil ability to store and conserve water of Ecological restoration increased efficiency. that of natural water saturation storage and water of protectedforest (average 1262.4 t/t/hm~2 and 323.4 hm~2) was obviously higher than average for 1103.6 plantation (t/t/hm~2 and 244.3 hm~2). Soil ability to store and conserve water of the open forest and hillsides planting improving 10.5% and 6.6 %, that of average steady infiltration rate for 6.89 mm/min, higher than the pure forest 2.36 mm/min. ability to store and conserve water for open forest and hillsides planting were improved 201 mm/min and 3.30 mm/min. Land conservation tillage, technology of level terrace was improved obviously, slope of terrace apple repair soil water infiltration capacity increased 1.44 mm/min.4、negative air ions concentration of ecological restoration increased, For the average of FCI in protected forest is 0.785ecological forest stand average higher. Forest airiness is weaker, air negative density is lower, so the FCI value is quite low. negative air ions concentration of open forest increased to 0.84, improve 238%. Chinese chestnut of air negative values are the FCI farmland improving (1.10), improved (129% and 308%). Farmland conservation repair and the conservation tillage technology economic efficiency, conservation tillage technology of air negative son concentration than before repair (FCI).5、The correlation of open forest about different ecological restoration measures is 0.9228, followed by that of level terrate forest with high grade for 0.9023. The lowest correlation is natural protection technology, which is 0.5423 degree. We must to protect virgin forests and replenish many trees for open foret, It is for this reason that ecological benefit is improved in the ecological restoration project demonstration.
        

蒙阴县毛坪小流域生态修复示范工程生态效益监测与评价

中文摘要7-10
ABSTRACT10-12
1 引言13-25
    1.1 研究背景、目的与意义13-14
    1.2 生态修复相关概念及研究现状14-21
        1.2.1 生态修复相关概念与理论14-17
        1.2.2 国内外生态修复工程与技术研究17-21
    1.3 生态修复效益概念及研究现状21-24
        1.3.1 生态修复效益的相关概念21
        1.3.2 国内外生态修复效益评价研究21-24
    1.4 研究的主要内容及目标24-25
        1.4.1 生态修复工程示范区典型植被群落结构与数量变化特征24
        1.4.2 生态修复工程示范区典型植被土壤物理性状及其分形特征24-25
        1.4.3 生态修复工程示范区典型植被蓄水保水效应25
        1.4.4 生态修复工程示范区不同立地类型空气负离子变化特征25
        1.4.5 生态修复工程示范区不同生态修复措施的生态效益综合评价25
2 研究区概况25-29
    2.1 自然条件25-27
        2.1.1 地理位置25
        2.1.2 地质地貌25-26
        2.1.3 水文气象26-27
        2.1.4 土壤状况27
        2.1.5 植被状况27
    2.2 社会经济条件27-29
        2.2.1 土地资源28
        2.2.2 水土流失现状28-29
3 试验研究方法与技术路线29-36
    3.1 试验研究方法29-35
        3.1.1 生物多样性测定29-31
        3.1.2 土壤物理性状测定31-32
        3.1.3 蓄水保水效应观测32-33
        3.1.4 FCI 森林空气离子评价模型法(FCI 法)33-34
        3.1.5 灰色关联度原理34-35
    3.2 研究技术路线35-36
        3.2.1 监测站点布设35-36
        3.2.2 监测指标体系36
    3.3 数据处理方法36
4 结果分析与讨论36-73
    4.1 生态修复工程示范区典型植被群落结构与数量变化特征39-51
        4.1.1 研究区内植被群落39-40
        4.1.2 植物群落物种多样性分析40-51
    4.2 生态修复工程示范区典型植被土壤物理性状及分形特征51-60
        4.2.1 土壤粒径分布51-54
        4.2.2 土壤颗粒的分形特征54-56
        4.2.3 土壤容重状况56-57
        4.2.4 土壤孔隙状况57-60
    4.3 生态修复工程示范区典型植被土壤蓄水保水效益60-66
        4.3.1 土壤层贮水量60-62
        4.3.2 土壤入渗速率62-66
    4.4 生态修复工程示范区不同立地类型空气负离子变化特征66-68
    4.5 生态修复工程示范区不同修复措施生态效益综合评价68-73
        4.5.1 不同修复措施生态效益指标的灰色关联度初值68-69
        4.5.2 不同修复措施生态效益指标的灰色关联度计算与分析69-73
5 结论73-77
    5.1 生态修复工程促进区域生物多样性明显增加73
    5.2 生态修复工程区土壤结构与水分状况明显改善、孔隙度提高73-75
    5.3 生态修复工程区土壤蓄水保水效益明显增加75-76
    5.4 生态修复工程区不同立地类型空气负离子对比76
    5.5 生态修复工程区不同修复措施生态效益综合评价76-77
6 参考文献77-83
致谢83-84
攻读硕士期间发表论文84
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