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芍药温室栽培品种的筛选及配套技术的研究

The Researches on the Selection of Herbaceous Peony Cultivars in Greenhouse and the Matched Techniques

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:郭先锋 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

herbaceous peony, cultivation, selection of cultivars, cultivation techniques, phenophase, cold storage, dwarf

        芍药(Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)是我国的传统名花,具有很高的观赏价值,也是山东省的著名花卉,在园林中广为应用。近年来,随着花卉应用方式多样性的发展趋势及花卉商品经济的发展,芍药这一传统名花,也正日益展现其作为花卉商品的潜力。但是,目前国内品种,无论切花产品还是盆栽产品,均未真正走入市场。究其栽培方面的主要原因,一方面,许多芍药品种定位不明确,难以进行专一性生产;另一方面,设施栽培技术还非常落后,不能做到周年或多季生产。为此,本研究在普遍调查芍药大田栽培品种、筛选出适于盆栽和切花的专用品种的基础上,进行日光温室的设施栽培,从中进一步筛选出适宜温室栽培的品种,同时摸索一些配套的栽培技术措施。本试验分2次进行,第一次进行温室内初步筛选,第二次进行进一步筛选并验证第一次试验结果,并总结配套栽培技术。主要结论如下:1.经过两次温室栽培试验,初步筛选出适宜温室栽培的芍药品种。适宜温室盆栽的品种有‘大富贵’、‘粉玉奴’、‘莲台’3个;适宜温室切花栽培的品种有‘蓝海碧波’、‘杨妃出浴’2个。2.冷藏处理能打破芍药休眠,促进萌动,对于‘大富贵’和‘莲台’两个品种,其有效处理时间分别为5周和6周。3.本研究探讨了赤霉素对3个芍药品种物候期的影响,发现赤霉素能明显促进芍药的萌动,有代替低温打破休眠的作用。赤霉素在不同品种之间的作用存在差异性,对于‘大富贵’和‘莲台’,300 mg/kg最宜促进萌动;而促进‘紫凤羽’萌动的最有效浓度则为200 mg/kg。4.以‘紫凤羽’为材料,研究了多效唑对芍药矮化栽培的影响,结果表明,多效唑有明显促进芍药矮化的作用,其有效浓度为200~250 mg/kg。5.对芍药温室栽培过程中的生长发育情况进行了跟踪记录,并将芍药温室栽培生长过程中物候期划分为6个阶段:芽萌动期、鳞片开裂期、茎伸长期、展叶期、蕾膨大透色期、开花期。每一物候期定义为一个时间段:进入某一时期的始期到60%芽或茎处于此时期的时间段。6.针对参试芍药品种,初步总结出温室栽培的配套技术措施,系统描述了温室栽培的技术流程,包括上盆、休眠的解除、温室环境的调控等方面,并提出一些具有参考性的建议,为今后的理论研究和生产实践提供参考。
    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a kind of traditional flowers in China, and also is very famous in Shandong, which has very high aesthetic values and is widely applied in landscape garden. In recent years, with the development of application and commodity economy of flowers, herbaceous peony also has showed the potential of being a commodity. But at the present time, herbaceous peony has never entered into markets whether cut-flowers or pot-flowers. This mainly due to two reasons: on the one hand, many cultivars have no specific orientation, thereby they can not be produced specifically; on the other hand, the techniques of protected cultivation are not advanced, so they can not be produced all the year round or multiple seasons.Therefore, this research was based on the general survey of herbaceous peony cultivars and the selected results of specific cut-flower and pot-flower cultivars. These cultivars were cultivated in a greenhouse, from which further selection of cultivars suitable for cultivation in greenhouse were chosen. At the same time, a number of matched measures of cultivation techniques were explored.The research was carried out for 2 times, the first time to select cultivars initially, the second time to further select and verify the first results, and to summarize the matching cultivation techniques. The main conclusions were as follows:1. The cultivars suitable for cultivation in greenhouse were selected after two tests.‘Da Fu Gui’﹑‘Lian Tai’﹑‘Fen Yu Nu’were suitable to pot-flower cultivation in greenhouse;‘Lan Hai Bi Bo’﹑‘Yang Fei Chu Yu’were suitable to cut-flower cultivation in greenhouse.2. Cold storage could break dormancy of herbaceous peonies and promote germination, for‘Da Fu Gui’and‘Lian Tai’, the effective treatment time were 5 weeks and 6 weeks separately.3. The effection of GA3 on phenophase of three cultivars was studied. GA3 could significantly promote bud sprouting, and it could break dormancy which substituted the role of low temperature. There were differences among different cultivars, for‘Da Fu Gui’and‘Lian Tai’, the most effective concentration was 300mg/kg; but,for‘Zi Feng Yu’, 200mg / kg was most suitable.4. The impact on the dwarf cultivation of herbaceous peony was investigated in‘Zi Feng Yu’by paclobutrazol (PP333). The results showed that paclobutrazol had significant role in the promotion of dwarf, and the effective concentration was 200 ~ 250 mg / kg.5. The growth and development process of herbaceous peonies cultivated in the greenhouse were recorded. The phenophase was divided into six stages: bud sprouting phase﹑scale cracking phase﹑stem elongating phase﹑leaf expanding phase﹑blossom expanding and showing color phase﹑flowering phase. Each phenophase was defined as a period of time: the beginning of a period to 60% of buds or stems in this period of time.6. For herbaceous peony cultivars tested, the matching techniques of cultivation in greenhouse were summed up, and the technical process of greenhouse cultivation system was described, which included the basin, dormancy, environmental management in greenhouse, and some consultative suggestions were supplied, which could supply reference for future research and production.
        

芍药温室栽培品种的筛选及配套技术的研究

中文摘要7-9
Abstract9-10
1 引言11-25
    1.1 芍药概述11-12
        1.1.1 芍药形态特征11
        1.1.2 芍药生态习性11-12
            1.1.2.1 光照11
            1.1.2.2 温度11-12
            1.1.2.3 水分12
            1.1.2.4 土壤12
    1.2 芍药设施栽培研究进展12-23
        1.2.1 设施类型的选择12-13
        1.2.2 设施栽培品种的选择及筛选现状13-14
        1.2.3 栽培基质的选择14
        1.2.4 设施中几个特殊环节的研究14-22
            1.2.4.1 芍药花芽分化的研究14-16
            1.2.4.2 解除休眠的研究16-18
            1.2.4.3 设施环境控制的研究进展18-22
        1.2.5 芍药抑制栽培的研究现状22-23
    1.3 本研究的目的和意义、内容和技术路线23-25
        1.3.1 本研究的目的和意义23-24
        1.3.2 本研究的内容24
        1.3.3 本研究的技术路线24-25
2 材料与方法25-33
    2.1 材料25-26
    2.2 方法26-33
        2.2.1 品种筛选26-30
            2.2.1.1 筛选指标的确定26-27
            2.2.1.2 评判方法27-28
            2.2.1.3 数据统计与处理28-30
            2.2.1.4 试验条件30
        2.2.2 栽培技术30-31
            2.2.2.1 休眠的解除30-31
            2.2.2.2 矮化实验31
            2.2.2.3 温湿度记录与分析31
            2.2.2.4 物候期的观测31
        2.2.3 试验流程31-33
3. 结果与分析33-50
    3.1 温室内主要品种的筛选33-39
        3.1.1 第一次试验筛选结果33-34
        3.1.2 第二次试验筛选结果34-39
    3.2 栽培技术39-47
        3.2.1 休眠的解除39-41
            3.2.1.1 冷藏处理39-40
            3.2.1.2 赤霉素处理40-41
        3.2.2 矮化41-43
            3.2.2.1 第一次试验41-42
            3.2.2.2 第二次试验42-43
        3.2.3 温室环境(温湿度)的控制43-47
            3.2.3.1 第一次试验43-45
            3.2.3.2 第二次试验45-47
    3.3 物候期47-48
        3.3.1 第一次试验47-48
        3.3.2 第二次试验48
    3.4 小结48-50
4. 讨论50-56
    4.1 设施栽培适宜品种的筛选50-52
    4.2 设施栽培下的芍药败育52-53
    4.3 设施盆栽促根技术的研究53
    4.4 芍药的矮化栽培53-54
    4.5 促成栽培芍药休眠的解除及赤霉素对芍药生长的影54-55
    4.6 设施栽培环境的控制和病害的防治55
    4.7 建议55-56
        4.7.1 对品种筛选的建议55
        4.7.2 对设施栽培配套技术的建议55-56
5.结论56-58
    5.1 品种筛选结果57
    5.2 配套技术的总结57-58
参考文献58-63
致谢63-64
攻读硕士学位期间发表的学术论文目录64
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