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玫瑰果实形态、生长动态及营养成分研究

Study on Morphology, Growth Dynamics and Nutrition of Rosa Rugosa Fruit

作者: 专业:园林植物与观赏园艺 导师:赵兰勇 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Rosa rugosa, Variety, Type, Fruit, Growth dynamics, Nutrient

        本研究选取有代表性的玫瑰8个品种和3个野生类型为试材,对其果实的形态、生长动态、主要营养成分进行了研究,以探讨玫瑰栽培品种与野生类型果实间形态、生长动态及营养成分上的差异,选育出适合加工食用和观赏的玫瑰品种和类型,为培育食用、观赏及二者兼备的玫瑰新品种提供一定的理论依据。主要结论如下。1 .玫瑰野生类型单果重、果肉净重和可食率均大于栽培品种。‘RCH’单果重最大,3种野生类型、‘紫英缤纷’和‘刺果’为大型果;‘HCH’果肉净重最大,‘唐白’可食率最高,‘一品紫衣’单果重、果肉净重和可食率均最低。玫瑰野生类型果实6月中旬开始着色,栽培品种6月下旬至7月初开始着色。野生类型果实颜色比栽培品种深。玫瑰不同品种和类型果实的果型指数差别明显。‘一品紫衣’、‘唐红’和‘紫龙卧池’的果型指数较大,果实接近于球形,‘紫雁’、‘紫枝’的果型指数较小,果实为不规则的扁球形;3种玫瑰野生类型之间果型指数变化不大,果实均为规则的扁球形。2.品种和野生类型横径生长规律不同。‘唐红’、‘刺果’、‘紫雁’、‘一品紫衣’和‘紫枝’5个品种果实横径有一个生长较快时期,野生类型果实横径生长中有两个生长较快时期,分别出现在5月下旬至6月初和6月中旬至7月初,其余3个品种果实横径生长没有出现明显的生长高峰,呈均匀稳定的增长趋势,到7月中下旬,果实横径增长极其缓慢,逐渐达到最大值;野生类型果实纵径增长趋势大体一致,除‘唐白’果实纵径在5月下旬至6月上旬出现一个生长较快时期外,其余品种和类型的果实在生长过程中均没有出现明显的生长高峰,呈现均匀稳定的增长趋势,5月下旬至6月中旬是果实纵径增长较快的阶段。到7月中下旬,果实横纵径逐渐停止生长,达到最大值。3.玫瑰品种和野生类型果实营养成分各有特点。果实中Vc、钙的含量均很高。所测品种果实中可溶性蛋白、总糖、总酸的含量与野生类型含量相近,Vc、氨基酸、粗脂肪的含量高于野生类型,类胡萝卜素、粗纤维、水的含量低于野生类型。‘紫英缤纷’、‘一品紫衣’、‘紫龙卧池’、‘RCH’是营养成分丰富的品种和类型,‘唐白’、‘紫枝’是营养成分较缺乏的品种;野生类型果实矿质元素的含量与栽培品种相比有明显的优势,钾、钙、镁、铜、锌的含量均高于栽培品种。HCH矿质元素的含量最高,与‘紫英缤纷’、‘紫枝’、MP均为富含矿质元素的品种和类型;‘紫龙卧池’、‘刺果’属于矿质元素稀缺型品种。从玫瑰果实加工角度看,玫瑰野生类型结果量大,类胡萝卜素、粗纤维、必需氨基酸和多数矿质元素的含量高于栽培品种,是加工以上述营养为主成分饮品的理想原料;‘唐红’和‘紫英缤纷’可用作Vc加工品的原料;‘刺果’果实可以加工成为富含糖类和铜的玫瑰果品;‘紫枝’和‘紫龙卧池’铁的含量高,是补铁为主饮料的可选原料。从玫瑰品种选育角度看:‘一品紫衣’Vc含量最高,但其产量低,可以用来培育富含Vc的新品种;‘紫龙卧池’可以选育富含氨基酸的品种;‘紫枝’可以选育观赏效果好、抗性强、富含铁的玫瑰新品种。HCH观赏价值高,营养成分丰富,叶、花、果形态变异明显,是观赏、食用、育种的优选种质资源, MP和RCH观赏价值高,矿质元素含量丰富,是选育高矿质食用型玫瑰的理想材料。
    This study selected eight varieties and three wild type roses as materials, analysing their fruit shape ,growth dynamics and major nutrient. The purpose was to found the differences between cultivars and wild roses in fruit shape ,growth dynamics and major nutrient, breed edible and ornamental varieties or types of roses and provide certain theoretical basis for the cultivation of new types of roses. The main conclusions were as follows:1. Fruit weight, pulp net and edible rate of wild roses were greater than those of the cultivars.The fruit of RCH was the largest, while R rugosa‘Yipinziyi’was the minimum. Three wild types, R.rugosa‘Ziyingbinfen’and R.rugosa‘Ciguo’were of large fruit, and other varieties were small and medium fruit. The pulp net of HCH was the biggest, while R.rugosa‘Yipinziyi’was the smallest.The edible rate of R . rugosa‘Tang white’was the maximum,while that of R . rugosa‘Yipinziyi’was the minimum. The coefficient of variation on wild types were higher than cultivars.The color of wild type fruit begin to change in mid-June,while cultivars start to change in late June to early July. The fruit color of wild types were deeper than that of the cultivars.The fruit index was obviously different in different varieties and types.The fruit index of R . rugosa‘Yipinziyi’, R.rugosa‘Tang Red’and R.rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’was big,and the shape of their fruits was nearly spherical.The fruit shapes of R.rugosa‘Purple Goose’and R.rugosa‘Purple Branch’were irregular flat spherical,and their fruit index was much smaller.The fruits of three wild roses were regular flat spherical ,the fruit index varies slightly.2.The diameter growth rule was not the same in varieties and wild-type.There was a clear growth peak in R . rugosa‘Tang Red’、R.rugosa‘Ciguo’、R.rugosa‘Purple Goose’、R.rugosa‘Yipinziyi’and R.rugosa‘Purple Branch’.The rest has no obvious growth peak in their diameter and it grew at a steady rate up to middle and late July when their eter reached the highest level and changed quite slowly.Three types of wild rose have two distinct growth peaks in late May to early June and mid-June to early July.The growth amount of the second peak was smaller than that of the first and the diameter ceased to grow in middle July.Fruit length growth of rose was roughly consistent with each other as there were no noticeable peak ,except for R.rugosa‘Tang White’which had an obvious growth peak in late May to early June. Length growth developed rapidly in late May to mid-June until mid-and-late July when it stopped growing and reached its maximum.3. Fruit of varieties and types have their own characteristics of nutrition. The content of vitamin C and Ca in roses were both higher.The soluble protein, total sugar and totle acid were almost equal.Vitamin C, amino acids and fat in cultivars were higher than wild type, however, carotenoids, crude fiber and water were lower than wild type.R.rugosa‘Ziyingbinfen’, R.rugosa‘Yipinziyi’, R.rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’,and RCH were rich in nutrient. R . rugosa‘Tang white’and R.rugosa‘Purple Branch’were lacking in nutrient. The content of mineral elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn in wild type fiuits were much larger than that in cultivars. The mineral content in HCH was the highest, R.rugosa‘Ziyingbinfen’, R.rugosa‘Purple Branch’and MP were rich in mineral content,however,R.rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’and R.rugosa‘Ciguo’were poor in mineral content.From the perspective of fruit processing :Wild roses were rich in production and their fruit can be processed those drinks, the main components of which were carotenoids, crude fiber, essential amino and mineral elements. R.rugosa‘Tang Red’and R.rugosa‘Ziyingbinfen’can be used as the raw materials to produce vitamin C. R.rugosa‘Ciguo’can be processed into sugar and copper-rich drinks. R.rugosa‘Purple Branch’and R.rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’were rich in iron,so they can be processed into iron-based beverages.From the perspective of rose breeding:R.rugosa‘Yipinziyi’was rich in vitamin C, but its productivity was low ,so it can be used to cultivate new species,which was richful in vitamin C. R.rugosa‘Purple Dragon Lying’can be used to breeding species ,which was abundant in amino acids. R.rugosa‘Purple Branch’can be used to cultivate new species, which has good viewing, strong resistance and rich in iron. The leaf, flower, fruit shape variation were clear on HCH,and at the same time ,it was rich in nutrients,so it was preferred breeding germplasm. MP and RCH have abundant mineral elements, and high ornamental value ,therefore they were ideal breeding materials for edible roses,which was abundant of mineral elements.
        

玫瑰果实形态、生长动态及营养成分研究

摘要7-9
Abstract9-11
1 引言12-21
    1.1 果实生长动态研究12-14
    1.2 果实营养成分研究14-18
    1.3 玫瑰果实营养成分研究18-20
        1.3.1 国外玫瑰果实营养成分研究18-19
        1.3.2 国内玫瑰果实营养成分研究19-20
    1.4 研究目的、意义20-21
2 试验材料与方法21-30
    2.1 试验地概况21
    2.2 试验材料21-22
    2.3 实验方法22-30
        2.3.1 玫瑰果实形态研究22
            2.3.1.1 单果重测定22
            2.3.1.2 果肉重、种子重、可食率测定22
            2.3.1.3 果实颜色观察22
            2.3.1.4 果型指数测定22
        2.3.2 玫瑰果实生长过程测定22
        2.3.3 果实营养成分测定22-30
            2.3.3.1 含水量的测定22-23
            2.3.3.2 可溶性蛋白含量测定23
            2.3.3.3 总糖含量测定23-24
            2.3.3.4 总酸含量测定24-25
            2.3.3.5 维生素c 含量测定25-26
            2.3.3.6 粗脂肪含量测定26-27
            2.3.3.7 粗纤维含量测定27
            2.3.3.8 类胡萝卜素含量测定27-28
            2.3.3.9 矿质元素含量的测定28
            2.3.3.10 氨基酸含量的测定28-30
3 研究结果与分析30-61
    3.1 玫瑰果实形态30-34
        3.1.1 单果重30-31
        3.1.2 果肉重、种子重、可食率31-33
        3.1.3 果实颜色33
        3.1.4 果型指数33-34
    3.2 玫瑰果实生长动态34-43
        3.2.1 ‘唐红'34-35
        3.2.2 ‘紫英缤纷'35
        3.2.3 ‘刺果'35-36
        3.2.4 ‘唐白'36
        3.2.5 ‘紫雁'36-37
        3.2.6 ‘一品紫衣'37
        3.2.7 ‘紫龙卧池37-38
        3.2.8 ‘紫枝'38
        3.2.9 ‘HCH'38-39
        3.2.10 ‘MP'39-40
        3.2.11 ‘RCH’40
        3.2.12 玫瑰不同类型及品种果实生长动态综合比较40-43
            3.2.12.1 不同品种果实横径生长动态40-41
            3.2.12.2 不同品种果实纵径生长动态41
            3.2.12.3 玫瑰野生类型果实横径生长动态41-42
            3.2.12.4 玫瑰野生类型果实纵径生长动态42-43
    3.3 玫瑰果实营养成分43-57
        3.3.1 含水量43
        3.3.2 可溶性蛋白43-45
        3.3.3 总糖含量45-46
        3.3.4 总酸含量46
        3.3.5 Vc 含量46-47
        3.3.6 粗脂肪含量47-48
        3.3.7 粗纤维含量48-49
        3.3.8 类胡萝卜素含量49-50
        3.3.9 矿质元素含量50-55
            3.3.9.1 钾50
            3.3.9.2 钠50-51
            3.3.9.3 钙51-52
            3.3.9.4 镁52-53
            3.3.9.5 铜53
            3.3.9.6 锌53-54
            3.3.9.7 铁54-55
        3.3.10 氨基酸55-57
    3.4 玫瑰不同类型及品种果实营养成分综合比较57-59
    3.5 玫瑰果实营养成分相关性分析59-61
4. 讨论61-66
    4.1 玫瑰不同类型及品种的果实营养成分差异原因61
    4.2 玫瑰果实食用加工可行性分析61-63
    4.3 玫瑰果实专用型、兼用型(观赏、食用)新品种培育理论基础63-66
5. 结论66-69
    5.1 玫瑰果实形态66
    5.2 玫瑰果实生长动态66-67
    5.3 玫瑰果实营养成分67-69
参考文献69-75
致谢75-76
图版76-82
攻读硕士学位期间发表的学术论文82
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