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保护地有机蔬菜种植体系下养分分配规律及环境效应的研究

Studies on Nutrient Distributing Principle and Environmental Effect Under Organic Vegetables Planting System in Protected Field

作者: 专业:植物营养学 导师:刘春生 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Organic vegetable, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Leach

        当前有机蔬菜产业在我国发展迅速,在高度集约化的有机蔬菜产区(例如山东、北京等地区),由于种植人员单凭常规水肥管理经验从事有机蔬菜种植,缺乏有机种植下的水肥资源管理理论以及相关的试验数据,使有机蔬菜的种植面临一系列问题。本研究在有机种植条件下,研究了两种灌溉处理(W1:常规灌溉;W2:减量灌溉)以及三种施肥处理(N1:常规施肥;N2:减量施肥;N3:对照处理)对有机蔬菜产量、品质、土壤养分变化以及N、P养分淋失等问题,其研究结果如下:在有机蔬菜种植中有机肥的施用量减少到常规施肥量的2/3,灌溉量减少到常规灌溉量的80%时,除第一茬菜外,其余两茬菜产量降低。同时常规施肥处理的萝卜硝酸盐的含量有超标的风险,施肥量较灌溉量对有机蔬菜中硝酸盐的含量影响较大。其中当有机肥的施用量减少到常规施肥量的2/3时,减量施肥处理的萝卜硝酸盐含量较常规施肥处理减少了27.1%;当灌溉量减少到常规灌溉量的80%时,减量灌溉处理的萝卜硝酸盐含量较常规灌溉处理减少了6.3%。常规施肥导致有机蔬菜地0-90 cm土层土壤无机氮有逐渐累积的趋势。其中在常规灌溉和减量灌溉下,常规施肥处理的土壤无机氮含量分别高达395.99 kg/ha,366.58 kg/ha;但是减量施肥处理的土壤无机氮含量分别为298.85 kg/ha,294.25 kg/ha,明显降低了土壤无机氮含量。本研究中有机肥的施用以氮素作为推荐对象,同时有机肥中N、P、K养分存在不平衡性,这导致0-30 cm土层土壤磷素的大量累积,其中常规灌溉和减量灌溉下,常规施肥处理的土壤速效磷含量分别高达237.75mg/kg,248.34 mg/kg。经过三茬菜后,各施肥处理的土壤有机质、全氮、全磷含量均有一定程度的提高,这也表明有机肥有培肥地力的作用。有机蔬菜地淋洗液的累积量与灌溉量和施肥量有关。通过控制灌溉量能够明显降低三茬菜的淋洗液累积量,当灌溉量减少到常规灌溉量的80%时,减量灌溉处理的淋洗液累积量较常规灌溉处理减少了31.4%;当有机肥的施用量减少到常规施肥量的2/3时,减量施肥处理的淋洗液累积量较常规施肥处理减少了22.2%。灌溉量和施肥量对三茬菜N、P的累积淋洗量有密切的关系,控制灌溉量以及施肥量均能够减少N、P的累积淋洗量。当灌溉量减少到常规灌溉量的80%时,减量灌溉处理的N、P累积淋洗量较常规灌溉处理分别减少了47.0%、65.4%;当有机肥的施用量减少到常规施肥量的2/3时,减量施肥处理的N、P累积淋洗量较常规施肥处理分别减少了29.5%、52.5%。常规施肥处理的氮素、磷素以及钾素盈余均高于减量施肥处理。其中在常规灌溉和减量灌溉下,常规施肥处理的磷素盈余高达4398.6 kg/ha, 4387.75 kg/ha。当有机肥基于氮肥推荐时,过高的磷素投入是造成土壤磷素累积的主要原因。同时养分利用率以钾素最高,其次是氮素,磷素最低。并且减量灌溉处理的灌溉水利用率显著高于常规灌溉处理。
    Recently, organic vegetable industry develops rapidly in China. In some dense organic vegetable production region, for example, Shan dong province and Bei jing city, organic vegetables planting faces some problems because farmers depend on the experience of conventional management including water and fertilization and lack of the theory about water and fertilization and some experimental data. Under organic vegetable planting condition, the reseach studied two irrigation and three fertilizer treatments which influenced yields, quality, soil nutrients and leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. The results were as follows:When the amount of fertilizer was reduced to two third of conventional fertilizer treatment and amount of irrigation was reduced to 80 percent of conventional irrigation treatment, yields of the last two organic vegetable crops decreased except for the first crop. And nitrate content was reduced by 27.1 percent and 6.3 percent compared with conventional fertilizer and irrigation treatment.The Nmin content accumulated gradually in 0-90 cm soil layer under the planting of three organic vegetable crops. The soil Nmin content of conventional fertilizer treatment were 395.99 kg/ha and 366.58 kg/ha under two kinds of irrigation treatments. But the soil Nmin content decreased significantly when the amount of fertilizer was reduced.Phosphorus accumulated greatly in 0-30cm soil layer because the amount of organic fertilizer was calculated according to the nitrogen application amount and the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of organic fertilizer were unparallel. The soil Olsen-P contents of conventional fertilizer treatment has reached 237.75 mg/kg and 248.34 mg/kg under two kinds of irrigations. Meanwhile, the soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus content have increased partly.Amount of fertilizer and irrigation affected the leaching dramatically. When amount of irrigation was reduced to 80 percent of conventional amount, the loss of leachate, nitrogen and phosphorus were reduced by 31.4%,47.0% and 65.4%. When the amount of fertilizer was reduced to two third of conventional amount of fertilizer, the loss of leachate, nitrogen and phosphorus were reduced by 22.2%,29.5% and 52.5%.The conventional fertilizer treatment was higher than the other fertilizer treatment when we calculated nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium surplus. The phosphorus surplus of conventional fertilizer treatment has reached 4398.6 kg/ha and 4387.75 kg/ha under two kinds of irrigation treatments. Meanwhile, potassium use efficiency was higher than that of nitrogen and phosphorus and the irrigation use efficiency of conventional irrigation treatment was lowerer than the other treatment that amount of irrigation was reduced to 80 percent of conventional irrigation treatment.
        

保护地有机蔬菜种植体系下养分分配规律及环境效应的研究

符号或缩略词说明4-8
摘要8-10
Abstract10-11
1. 引言12-23
    1.1 国内外有机农业的发展现状12-14
    1.2 有机农业中作物的产量、品质以及养分淋失问题14-18
        1.2.1 有机农业中作物的产量14-16
        1.2.2 有机农业中作物的品质16
        1.2.3 有机农业中N、P养分的淋溶损失16-18
    1.3 农业生产中水肥资源管理的研究进展18-21
        1.3.1 水分资源管理的研究18-19
        1.3.2 有机养分资源管理的研究19-21
    1.4 本文研究的问题及目的、意义21-23
2. 材料与方法23-31
    2.1 试验材料23-25
        2.1.1 供试土壤23-24
        2.1.2 供试蔬菜24
        2.1.3 供试肥料24-25
    2.2 试验设计25-26
    2.3 田间管理26-27
    2.4 分析测定项目与方法27-29
        2.4.1 测定项目27-28
        2.4.2 测定方法28-29
            2.4.2.1 土壤样品测定方法28
            2.4.2.2 植株样品测定方法28-29
            2.4.2.3 淋溶液样品测定方法29
    2.5 数据处理及分析29-31
3. 结果与分析31-64
    3.1 有机种植中蔬菜产量、品质的研究31-37
        3.1.1 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜产量的影响31-35
        3.1.2 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜硝酸盐、Vc含量的影响35-37
    3.2 有机蔬菜养分吸收及其干物质累积的研究37-45
        3.2.1 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜氮吸收量的影响37-39
        3.2.2 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜磷吸收量的影响39-40
        3.2.3 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜钾吸收量的影响40-43
        3.2.4 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜干物质累积的影响43-45
    3.3 有机蔬菜地土壤养分变化规律的研究45-52
        3.3.1 有机蔬菜地土壤0-90 cm土层土壤无机氮的动态变化45-48
            3.3.1.1 不同水肥处理对0-30 cm表层土壤无机氮含量的影响45-46
            3.3.1.2 不同水肥处理对30-60 cm土层土壤无机氮含量的影响46
            3.3.1.3 不同水肥处理对60-90 cm土层土壤无机氮含量的影响46-48
            3.3.1.4 不同水肥处理对0-90 cm土层土壤无机氮含量的影响48
        3.3.2 有机蔬菜地土壤速效磷含量的动态变化48-49
        3.3.3 有机蔬菜地土壤速效钾含量的动态变化49-50
        3.3.4 有机蔬菜地土壤全氮、全磷含量的动态变化50-51
        3.3.5 有机蔬菜地土壤有机质含量的变化51-52
    3.4 有机蔬菜地N、P养分淋失的研究52-55
        3.4.1 不同水肥处理对淋溶液累积量的影响52-53
        3.4.2 不同水肥处理对无机氮累积淋洗量的影响53-54
        3.4.3 不同水肥处理对全氮、全磷累积淋洗量及其表观淋失率的影响54-55
    3.5 有机蔬菜地土壤环境变化的研究55-58
        3.5.1 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜地土壤pH的影响55-56
        3.5.2 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜地土壤EC含量的影响56-58
    3.6 有机蔬菜地N、P、K养分供需状况及表观利用率的研究58-62
        3.6.1 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜地N素表观平衡的影响58-59
        3.6.2 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜地P素盈余的影响59-61
        3.6.3 不同水肥处理对有机蔬菜地K素盈余的影响61-62
    3.7 N、P、K表观利用率及灌溉水分生产率的研究62-64
        3.7.1 不同水肥处理对N、P、K表观利用率的影响62-63
        3.7.2 不同水分处理对灌溉水分生产率的影响63-64
4. 讨论64-67
5. 结论67-68
参考文献68-74
致谢74-75
攻读学位期间论文发表情况75
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