温度胁迫对葡萄生长的影响及叶面肥喷布效应

Temperature Stress on Grape Growth and Effects of Foliar Fertilizer Spaying

作者: 专业:果树学 导师:翟衡 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Grapevine, Root, Cold resistance, Storage nutrition, Clone/rootstock combination, High temperature stress

        本试验以砧木及品种为试材,鉴定了10种砧木的抗寒性,研究了生长中后期保叶和砧穗组合对提高树体贮藏营养的作用;同时研究了高温胁迫下喷布CaCl2与NaHSO3对缓解葡萄光合抑制的生理机制;主要结果如下:1.以3个品种的离体根和活体根系为试材进行低温胁迫处理,所得半致死温度差异性不显著,证明利用离体根鉴定抗寒性是可行的;-8℃下不同时间胁迫,贝达离体根的相对电导率随时间延长呈升高趋势,其中4h短时间胁迫与对照没有显著性差异,4h20h之间相对电导率急剧上升,直到48h变化趋于平缓。2.不同砧木的抗寒性顺序为:贝达>5BB>Fercal、101-14>SO4> 3309C>140Ru>1103P>110R、Gravesac;其中贝达抗寒性最强,半致死温度为-8.8℃;砧木5BB、Fercal、101-14、SO4、3309C抗寒性相当,半致死温度处于-7.0-5.6℃之间;140R、1103P、Gravesac、110R抗寒性稍差,半致死温度在-5.0-4.3℃之间;不同砧木的抗寒性与离体根的粗度显著相关,相关系数为r=0.5027(a=0.01时,r=0.4869)。3.不同砧木离体根的相对电导率随胁迫温度降低呈不同程度的上升;-3℃胁迫下,抗寒性强的贝达、5BB等增幅较小,比其对照增加69.1%、69.34%,抗寒性弱的110R、Gravesac增幅较大,分别比其对照增加146%、136%;-6℃胁迫下,砧木贝达、5BB与其对照相比增加112.04%、127.51,而Gravesac、110R比对照增加238.81%、237.39%。可溶性糖、脯氨酸、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白、MDA随低温胁迫呈升高趋势,相关性分析表明,除可溶性糖指标外,以上指标与半致死温度显著相关。4.生长期叶面喷布23次的NaHSO3各组合,均不同程度的提高赤霞珠葡萄的光合能力及光系统II光化学效率;NaHSO3+增糖剂处理使果实含糖量提高10g/l,枝条淀粉含量比对照提高53.4%;NaHSO3+KH2PO4处理的根系中淀粉含量比对照增加9.2%;NaHSO3+尿素处理的枝条和根系中的蛋白质含量增加25.3%、9.6%,氨基酸含量增加6.5%、24.9%。综合看,NaHSO3+增糖剂处理效果较好。5.生长季中后期对赤霞珠喷布3次各种氨基酸及氮、磷、钾叶面肥,各处理均不同程度提高了叶片光合速率及光系统II稳定性;0.08%谷氨酸、0.1%多肽使果实含糖量提高17.90g/l、11.48g/l,一年生枝条淀粉含量提高67.3%、64.1%;0.15%增糖剂处理的枝条淀粉含量增加48.9%;0.4%KH2PO4处理的枝条中可溶性糖及淀粉含量增加74.7、27.7%;0.6%尿素处理的氨基酸和可溶性蛋白提高60.3%、36.9%。综合看,氨基酸源叶面肥较好。6.不同赤霞珠砧穗组合中,相同品系不同砧木,9、10月份测定CS-169/1103P组合光合速率及光系统II的光化学效率高于CS-169/SO4组合,果实品质、枝条和根系的C、N贮藏营养亦显著优于SO4砧组合;不同品系嫁接于1103P砧木上,无论光合、荧光参数还是果实糖度、树体贮藏营养均以CS-169品系最优。综合看,赤霞珠以169品系嫁接1103P砧木组合最佳。7.喷施15mmol·L-1CaCl2显著提高了高温胁迫下葡萄叶片的净光合速率(Pn),使光系统II(PSII)维持较高的活性,光化学猝灭系数(qP)、PSII的天线转换效率(Fv’/Fm’)、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)均极显著高于清水对照,初始荧光(Fo)极显著小于对照,膜脂过氧化产物MDA含量稍低于对照;添加抑制剂EGTA、CPZ的处理则明显抑制了光合作用与PSII功能活性,证明喷Ca+2能有效缓解高温对叶片光合作用的抑制以及对PSII系统的损害。8.不同浓度NaHSO3不同程度的减轻了高温胁迫对巨峰葡萄光合作用的抑制程度,维持了PSII较高的活性;以1mmol·L-1NaHSO3的缓解作用最好。
    The cold resistance of 10 rootstocks were identified, the effects of a series of protecting leaves operations and the combination of clone and rootstock on stored nutrition were appraised; while the physiological mechanism of CaCl2 and NaHSO3 to alleviate grape photosynthesis was studied. The results were as follows:1. There was no significant difference in semilethal temperature between cutting root and invivo root under low temperature stress in 3 cultivars. It’s feasible to use cutting roots for testing cold resistance of rootstocks; the relative conductivity of Beta cutting roots increased with time under -8℃cold stress, short period stress of 4h had no significant difference with control, while the relative conductivity increased sharply between 4h and 20h and reached peak value till 48h.2. The cold resistance of rootstocks in descending order was: Beta>5BB> Fercal、101-14>SO4>3309C>140Ru>1103P>110R、Gravesac; Beta had the strongest cold resistance and its semilethal temperature was -8.8℃, Followed by 5BB, Fercal, 101-14, SO4 and 3309C, whose semilethal temperature were between -7.0 and -5.6℃; 140R, 1103P, Gravesac and 110R had low cold resistance, whose semilethal temperature were between -5.0 and -4.3℃. Cold resistance of different rootstocks and coarseness of cutting root was significant correlation. The coefficient of correlation was r=0.5027 (a=0.01, r=0.4869).3. The relative conductivity of different rootstocks cutting roots increased with the temperature declining. Under -3℃stress, Beta and 5BB increased by 69.1% and 69.34% than control, while 110R and Gravesac increased by 146% and 136% than control. Under -6℃stress, Beta and 5BB increased by 112.04%,127.51% than control, while Gravesac and 110R increased by 238.81%, 237.39% than control. The content of soluble sugar, proline, free amino acids, soluble protein and MDA was increase with temperature decreasing. Correlation analysis showed that above indexes had a significant correlation with semilethal temperature except souble sugar.4. Spraying 2 or 3 times NaHSO3 and its combinations during growing season could significantly improve the photosynthetic performance and the photochemical efficiency of PSII of Cabernet Sauvignon. NaHSO3 + ZTJ treatment increased the fruit sugar content and branch starch content by 10g/l and 53.4% than control. NaHSO3+KH2PO4 treatment increased root starch content by 9.2% than control. NaHSO3+urea treatment increased protein branch and root content by 25.3% and 9.6%, and increased branch and root amino acid content by 6.5% and 24.9%. In general, NaHSO3+ZTJ treatment had a better effect.5. Spraying 3 times amino acids and N, P, K foliar fertilizer during mid and later growing period of Cabernet Sauvignon could improve the photosynthetic performance and the photochemical efficiency of PSII to a certain extent. 0.08% glutamic acid and 0.1% polypeptide treatment increased fruit sugar content of by 17.90g/l and 11.48g/l, while increased branch starch content by 67.3% and 64.1%. 0.15%; ZTJ treatment increased branch starch content by 48.9%. 0.4%; KH2PO4 treatment increased branch soluble sugar and starch content by 74.7% and 27.7% than control; 0.6% urea treatment increased amino acid and soluble protein content by 60.3% and 36.9%. In general, the amino acid foliar fertilizer had the better effect. 6. Among the different Cabernet Sauvignon clone and rootstock combinations, CS-169/1103P had a higher photosynthetic rate and photochemical efficiency of PS II than CS-169/SO4 in September and October. The fruit quality and C, N storage nutrient in branch and root of CS-169/1103P was significantly better than CS-169/SO4. Among the different clones grafted on 1103P, the clone of 169 had the best effect on photosynthesis, fluorescence parameters, fruit sugar content and storage nutrition. In general, the clone of 169 grafted on 1103P was the best.7. The net photosynthetic rate, PSII activity, the photochemical quenching, Fv’/Fm’, Fv/Fm, were significantly increased by spraying 15mmol·L-1 CaCl2 under high temperature stress. The membrane lipid peroxidation produce content was slightly lower than control. Adding inhibitors EGTA, CPZ treatment significantly inhibited the photosynthesis and the activity of PSII. Idicated that spraying Ca2+ effectively alleviated the high temperature inhibition to the photosynthesis and PSII system in grape leaves.8 NaHSO3 of different concentration alleviated the heat stress inhibition to photosynthesis on kyoto grape and maintained high PSII activity. The effect of 1mmol·L-1 NaHSO3 on alleviation to the leaf photosynthesis was best.
        

温度胁迫对葡萄生长的影响及叶面肥喷布效应

中文摘要8-10
Abstract10-12
1 引言13-27
    1.1 葡萄的产业地位13
    1.2 葡萄的抗寒性13-22
        1.2.1 葡萄的抗寒性与越冬性13-14
        1.2.2 抗寒性研究方法14-16
        1.2.3 葡萄种质资源与抗寒性的关系16-17
        1.2.4 葡萄抗寒育种的成就17-18
        1.2.5 抗寒类型的植物学特征18-19
        1.2.6 抗寒类型的生理生化特征19-22
    1.3 高温胁迫对植物生长发育的影响及耐热性诱导22-26
        1.3.1 高温对植物生长抑制的作用22
        1.3.2 高温胁迫对植物光合作用的影响22-23
        1.3.3 高温胁迫下植物的应激反应23
        1.3.4 植物耐热性的诱导23-26
    1.4 研究目的及意义26-27
2. 材料与方法27-34
    2.1 砧木抗寒性试验27
        2.1.1 离体根与活体根抗寒性比较27
        2.1.2 适宜低温冷冻时间确定27
        2.1.3 不同砧木离体根抗寒性鉴定27
    2.2 NaHS0_3 及叶面肥对赤霞珠葡萄后期营养的影响27-28
    2.3 不同砧穗组合对赤霞珠后期生长发育的影响28
    2.4 钙及亚硫酸氢钠对巨峰叶片高温胁迫的缓解28-29
    2.5 测定指标与试验方法29-34
        2.5.1 电解质外渗率29
        2.5.2 可溶性蛋白、丙二醛提取液的制备29-30
        2.5.3 可溶性糖30
        2.5.4 游离氨基酸30-31
        2.5.5 脯氨酸31
        2.5.6 果实含糖量31-32
        2.5.7 果实含酸量32
        2.5.8 光合速率32
        2.5.9 荧光参数32-34
3. 结果与分析34-62
    3.1 砧木的抗寒性鉴定34-43
        3.1.1 葡萄活体根系与离体根抗寒性的比较34
        3.1.2 冷冻处理时间对离体根相对电导率的影响34-35
        3.1.3 10 种砧木的抗寒性鉴定35-43
    3.2 不同砧木与品种品系组合的生物学效应43-47
        3.2.1 不同砧穗组合光合参数的变化43-44
        3.2.2 不同砧穗组合荧光参数的变化44-45
        3.2.3 不同砧穗组合果实糖酸含量45-46
        3.2.4 不同砧穗组合的枝条生长量及贮藏营养46-47
    3.3 喷施NaH50_3 对葡萄光合机构及贮藏营养的作用47-50
        3.3.1 不同NaH50_3 组合对葡萄叶片光合参数的影响47-48
        3.3.2 喷施NaH50_3 组合对葡萄叶片荧光参数的影响48-49
        3.3.3 喷施NaH50_3 组合对赤霞珠果实品质的影响49
        3.3.4 喷 NaHSO3各组合对葡萄枝条和根系贮藏营养的影响49-50
    3.4 中后期使用叶面肥对延缓叶片衰老、增加贮藏营养的作用50-55
        3.4.1 不同叶面肥对葡萄叶片光合参数的影响50-52
        3.4.2 喷施叶面肥对葡萄叶片叶绿素荧光参数的影响52-53
        3.4.3 叶面肥对葡萄果实品质的影响53-54
        3.4.4 喷施叶面肥对葡萄枝条贮藏营养的影响54-55
    3.5 钙对缓解葡萄叶片高温胁迫的作用55-59
        3.5.1 高温下葡萄叶片净光合速率和气孔导度的日变化55
        3.5.2 钙对高温胁迫下葡萄光合机构的影响55-59
    3.6 NaHS0_3 对高温胁迫下葡萄叶片光合机构的影响59-62
        3.6.1 NaHS0_3 对高温胁迫下葡萄光合参数的影响59
        3.6.2 不同浓度NaHS0_3 对高温胁迫下葡萄叶片PSII 功能维持的影响59-60
        3.6.3 NaHS0_3 对高温胁迫下葡萄叶片快速荧光诱导动力学参数的影响60
        3.6.4 NaHSO_3 对高温胁迫下葡萄叶片丙二醛含量的影响60-62
4 讨论62-67
    4.1 砧木的抗寒性评价62-63
    4.2 根系类型及结构与抗寒性63-64
    4.3 葡萄砧木抗寒的生理生化机制64-65
    4.4 保叶对改善葡萄贮藏营养与越冬性的关系65-66
    4.5 叶面喷布化学制剂对缓解高温胁迫的可行性66-67
5 结论67-68
参考文献68-78
致谢78-79
攻读学位期间发表的学术论文79
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