开张角度对红富士苹果(Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red Fuji)内源激素及碳氮营养的影响

Effects of Branch Bending on Endogenous Hormones ,carbon and Nitrogen Nutrition for Red Fuji/malus Hupehensis

作者: 专业:果树学 导师:姜远茂 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

apple trees, branch bending, endogenous hormones, 13C, 15N-urea, utilization

        本研究以富士苹果(Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red Fuji)/平邑甜茶(Malus hupehensis)为试材,于2007-2009年在淄博沂源县社庄村果园、山东农业大学果树实验站进行。利用酶联免疫技术(ELISA)测定了开张角度对盆栽富士苹果新梢生长及内源激素含量及平衡的影响;利用13C、15N稳定同位素标记方法,研究了开张角度对盆栽富士苹果碳氮营养分配的影响;利用15N标记方法,研究了大田条件下枝条下垂对春季土施15N-尿素的吸收、利用与分配特性的影响。结果如下:不同开张角度对新梢生长及内源激素影响研究结果表明,开张角度显著抑制新梢生长,到秋梢生长期,对照、枝条水平和枝条下垂三组的新梢生长量分别为50.7cm,21.4cm,18.1cm,对照显著高于两组处理。植株茎尖的内源ABA含量随开张角度的增大显著上升,在新梢生长初期,枝条水平和枝条下垂与对照相比,分别升高了17.5%和29.2%;GA、IAA、ZR含量均有不同程度的下降,其中GA、IAA含量下降显著,ZR含量差异不显著。开张角度后,细根的内源ABA含量显著上升,GA、IAA含量均有降低,ZR含量差异不显著;茎尖与细根的(IAA+GA+ZR)/ABA比值随开张角度的增大显著降低,在秋梢生长期,三组的茎尖(IAA+GA+ZR)/ABA比值分别为2.11,1.61,1.36。开张角度对13C分配影响研究结果表明,根系13C分配率随开张角度的增大而降低,对照、枝条水平和枝条下垂三组的根系13C分配率均在秋梢生长期达到各自最大值,分别为46.39%,36.39%,26.73%;叶片13C分配率则随开张角度的增大而升高,在秋梢生长期三组的叶片13C分配率分别为30.15%,42.40%,54.97%;开张角度减少了13C在新梢和细根的分配,随开张角度的增大,减弱作用增强。地上部的13C分配率呈枝条下垂处理>枝条水平处理>对照的趋势,地上部多年生器官的13C分配率差异不显著。开张角度对15N-尿素分配及利用特性的影响研究结果表明,角度增大降低了植株15N利用率,在秋梢生长期差异显著,对照显著高于处理,对照、枝条水平和枝条下垂三组分别为5.29%、3.87%、4.05%。在新梢旺长期和秋梢生长期,处理新梢的15N分配率显著降低,叶片15N分配率有所升高;春稍停长期,处理地上部多年生器官与新梢的15N分配率显著低于对照。大田试验表明,红富士苹果枝条下垂影响春季土施15N-尿素的吸收、利用与分配。枝条下垂的根部Ndff值低于对照;从新梢旺长期到果实成熟期,处理短梢及着生于短梢的器官Ndff值与对照差异较小,其他器官Ndff均低于对照;果实采收后,处理地上部器官的Ndff值高于对照。枝条下垂对各器官的15N分配产生影响,处理短梢与果实的15N分配率显著高于对照,长梢的15N分配率低于对照;在花芽分化期前,处理根系的15N分配率高于对照,果实膨大期后,处理的根系15N分配率低于对照,果实采收后差距为20.203%,差异最为显著。枝条下垂处理后,果树的15N利用率降低,差异随物候期推移逐渐增大,果实采收后,处理与对照的15N利用率分别为21.083%和26.495%。
    The study used the apple trees(Malus domestica Borkh. cv Red Fuji)/Malus hupehensis as the materials, was carried out in the apple orchard of Shezhuang,Yiyuan County, Zibo City, and in Shandong Agricultural University fruit research station from 2007 to 2009. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) technology was used to investigate the dynamic changes of the new shoot growth and the endogenous hormone contents of pot apple trees after branch bending. Trees labelled with stable isotope 13C、15N in pot condition were studied to explore the effects of branch bending angle on characteristics of 13C、15N distribution ratio, while trees in field condition were used to explore the effects of branch drooping on characteristics of absorption, distribution and utilization of 15N-urea through soil application in spring. The main results were as follows:Bend branch angle obviously inhibit the growth of new shoots. At autumn shoot growing stage,The growth lengths of control、horizontal branch and drooping branch were 50.7cm、21.4cm and 18.1cm respectively, this indicated that the branch length of control was obviously higher than that of branch bending. The levels of endogenous ABA in shoot tip of horizontal branch and drooping branch were 17.5% and 29.2% more than that of control, while the levels of GA、IAA decreased significantly. meanwhile the level of ZR decreased unconspicuously. The level of endogenous ABA in fine roots of branch bending was significantly higher than that of control, whereas the levels of GA and IAA decreased in different grade angle, and the content of ZR showed little different. The ratio of (IAA+GA+ZR)/ABA in new shoot tip and fine roots decreased along with the bending angle, the length in shoot tip of control、horizontal branch and drooping branch were 2.11,1.61,1.36 respectively at autumn shoot growing stage.The 13C distribution ratio to roots decreased significantly along with the bending angle. The maximum value of 13C distribution ratio to roots was found at autumn shoot growing stage, and the ratio of control、horizontal branch and drooping branch were 46.39%,36.39%,26.73% respectively. The 13C distribution ratio to leaves was positive conrrelation with branch bending angle, and the ratio of control、horizontal branch and drooping branch were 30.15%,42.40%,54.97% respectively at autumn shoot growing stage. However, the 13C distribution to fine roots and new shoots decreased along with bend angle. The distribution to above-ground organs showed as the following: branch drooping > branch horizontal >control, whereas distribution to perennial organs had no obvious difference.The 15N utilization ratio of treated plant was lower than that of control, and the significant difference was found at autumn shoot growing stage, that of control、branch horizontal and branch drooping were 5.29%、3.87%、4.05%. The 15N distribution ratio to new shoots of treated plant was significantly lower than that of control, while the distribution ratio of leaves was significantly higher than that of control. The 15N distribution ratio to new shoots and perennial organs of treated plant was significantly lower than that of control.Experiments in field condition indicated that the Ndff value of roots in treated plant was obviously lower than that of control. Ndff value of fine roots was obviously different during multiple phenophases, while significant variance in Ndff value of coarse roots was found after fruit rapid-swelling stage. There was no regular pattern between Ndff value of leaves in short and middle shoots between the treatment and the control. Meanwhile, Ndff value of fruits, long shoot and leaves in long shoot with treatment was obviously lower than that of control before fruits were harvested, while Ndff value of perennial organs in treated plant was obviously higher than that of control after fruits were harvested. The 15N distribution ratio to short and middle shoots of treated plant was significantly higher than that of control, while difference of distribution to fruit between the treatment and the control was significant only after fruit rapid-swelling stage. Moreover, the distribution ratio to long shoot of treated plant was obviously lower than that of control before fruits were harvested. The 15N utilization ratio of treated plant was lower than that of control, and the significant difference was found after fruit rapid-swelling stage, the 15N utilization ratio of treated plant and control were 21.083% and 26.495% respectively.
        

开张角度对红富士苹果(Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red Fuji)内源激素及碳氮营养的影响

中文摘要6-8
Abstract8-10
1 引言11-28
    1.1 拉枝开角的作用13-17
        1.1.1 开张角度有利于树形培养,扩增树冠,促发短枝14
        1.1.2 开张角度有利于平衡树势,实现高产和优质14-15
        1.1.3 开张角度影响果树生理变化的基础15-17
    1.2 N 对果树的影响及N 的吸收、运转与分配特性17-20
        1.2.1 N 对果树生理生化的影响17-18
        1.2.2 N 对果树产量及果实品质的影响18-19
        1.2.3 N 的吸收、运转、分配与贮藏、再利用特性19-20
    1.3 稳定性同位素~(15)N 在我国农业研究中的应用20-22
        1.3.1 ~(15)N 示踪技术在植物氮素运输及氮素分配上的应用21-22
        1.3.2 ~(15)N 示踪技术在氮素损失研究上的应用22
    1.4 碳稳定性同位素在我国农业研究中的应用22-24
        1.4.1 ~(13)C 的自然丰度应用22-23
        1.4.2 ~(13)C 的脉冲标记应用23-24
    1.5 苹果内源激素与果树生长发育的关系24-26
        1.5.1 内源激素与果树成花的关系24-25
        1.5.2 植物激素对果树成枝的作用25-26
    1.6 本试验的研究目的和意义26-28
2 材料与方法28-34
    2.1 试材与处理28-29
        2.1.1 对大田红富士苹果枝条下垂的处理28
        2.1.2 盆栽红富士苹果主枝开张角度的处理28-29
    2.2 测定方法29-34
        2.2.1 大田试验的采样及测定29
        2.2.2 盆栽苹果土施~(15)N 尿素的采样及测定29-30
        2.2.3 13C 脉冲标记方法及测定30-31
        2.2.4 盆栽富士苹果内源激素的采样及测定31-34
3 结果与分析34-50
    3.1 开张角度对苹果新梢生长量的影响34-35
    3.2 开张角度对盆栽富士苹果内源激素的影响35-39
    3.3 主枝开张角度对盆栽苹果各器官~(13)C 分配率的影响39-41
    3.4 主枝开张角度对盆栽富士苹果~(15)N 分配及利用的影响41-43
        3.4.1 主枝开张角度对盆栽富士苹果~(15)N 利用率的影响41-42
        3.4.2 开张角度对盆栽富士苹果各器官~(15)N 分配率的影响42-43
    3.5 大田条件下红富士苹果枝条下垂对~(15)N 尿素的吸收、分配及利用影响43-50
        3.5.1 大田条件下枝条下垂对红富士苹果各器官Ndff %变化的影响43-46
        3.5.2 枝条下垂对年周期各器官~(15)N 分配率的影响46-48
        3.5.3 枝条下垂对年周期关键物候期~(15)N 利用率的影响48-50
4 讨论50-54
    4.1 开张角度对新梢生长量的影响50
    4.2 开张角度与苹果植株内源激素含量及平衡变化的关系50-51
    4.3 开张角度影响氮素的吸收、分配及利用51-52
    4.4 开张角度对碳素分配的影响52-54
5 结论54-55
参考文献55-66
致谢66-67
附录67-68
硕士在读期间形成的论文68
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