徂徕山森林公园生态公益林健康评价及经营决策研究

Study on Forest Health Assessment and Operation Decision of Culai Mountain Forest Park Ecological Health

作者: 专业:森林培育 导师:鲁法典 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

ecological forest, forest health, biodiversity, operating decision

        随着人类社会的经济发展和生态环境的恶化,人们对森林的认识也在逐步深入,森林存在的生态价值和社会价值越来越得到全社会的认同。我国现将生态公益林建设提到了前所未有的高度,不管是对生态公益林的面积还是森林质量都提出了更高的要求。由于我国建国后所营造的人工林缺乏科学规划,森林经理工作不到位,森林乱砍乱伐严重,造成人工生态公益林存在着林分结构单一、稳定性差、抵抗力低等健康问题。目前,对大部分的生态公益林的经营粗放,致使人工生态公益林的健康状况得不到有效地改善,这些问题都已经引起了林业工作者的重视,并开展了相关研究。保持生态公益林的健康是发挥其生态效益的基础及保障,所以在森林健康评价的基础上对生态公益林进行科学的有针对性的经营,改进其健康状况,显得尤为重要。森林健康的理论与实践的研究使得森林健康评价有了可操作性。笔者正是在这一研究背景下,以山东省徂徕山生态公益林为研究对象,以样地调查和实验室土样检测数据为基础,从自然环境因素、生长量因素、生物多样性因素、土壤胁迫因素及恢复力因素五个方面选取指标,用主成分分析法选取有代表性的综合评价指标对其进行了健康评价,评价结果如下:(1)徂徕山生态公益林的健康状况有一定的差异,赤杨纯林、刺槐纯林的健康得分分别是1.12、0.68,健康等级为健康;油松/刺槐混交林、麻栎纯林、赤松纯林的健康得分分别是0.12、-0.03、-0.21,健康等级为亚健康;油松纯林、油松/侧柏混交林、日本落叶松纯林的健康得分分别是-0.38、-0.43、-0.50,健康等级为不健康。总体来看,阔叶落叶林好于针叶林。(2)徂徕山森林的灌木生物种类差异不大,但盖度、高度、数量差异较大,林下灌木层灌木数量最多的为赤松和油侧混交林,赤杨林下未发现任何灌木,刺槐仅有较少荆条。赤杨纯林生长茂盛,郁闭度均达到90%以上,林下透光性差,严重影响灌木的生长。草本生物多样性差异较小,赤杨、刺槐等阔叶林健康状况较好,但生物多样性较差;松类纯林的健康状况较差,但生物多样性方面有优势;混交林由于密度过大等原因没有明显优势。(3)土壤胁迫方面,油松/刺槐的混交林各项指标测定中表现较好,其中有机质、速效磷和碱解氮均大于其他林分,且孔隙度、速效钾等指标均保持在较高水平;赤松纯林土壤孔隙度最差,但其土壤养分相关指标好于油松纯林,这与赤松和油松树高及胸径分析保持一致;总体看来,阔叶纯林及针阔混交林数据中与林木及灌草生长密切相关的有机质、全氮和碱解氮等相对高于针叶纯林,说明阔叶纯林及针阔混交林较针叶纯林有更好的改良土壤的成效。(4)评价分析可知,影响徂徕山森林健康的主要因子是林分密度、土壤养分、乔木生长量、灌木层多样性和自然更新能力,这对徂徕山的健康经营意义重大。自然环境虽然对森林健康也有较大影响,但在经营中较难改变,只能改变植物配置方式等实现最优利用。通过健康评价分析,对徂徕山生态公益林的经营措施进行了探讨。根据评价结果分别在具体经营措施和整体经营规划方面提出建议。具体层面包括调整林分密度、加强水肥管理、尝试种植灌木、保护更新幼苗等;整体层面是从造林规划、幼龄林抚育、成林抚育、低效林分改造、主伐更新、病虫害防治、防火道等基础设施建设方面提出合适的经营决策。
    With the economic development of human society and the deterioration of ecological environment, gradually, the knowledge of the forest among people was enriched, and the ecological value of forests even social values were recognized by the whole society. Now, China has paid important attaintion to ecological forest, both to the ecological forest area and forest quality. Since the founding of our country, because of the lacking of scientific programming,the work of forest management was not comprehensive and the indiscriminate felling of trees was very serious, so now the stand structure of artificial ecological forest was single, with poor stability and low resistance. Most of the public ecological forest was under extensive management which resulted in the difficulty to the improvement of the health of artificial ecological forest, and these problems has been noticed and studied by forestry workers.A health forest was the basis for its ecological function.Based on the assessment of forest health, programming scientificly of ecological forest management and improving the health condition was of great importance. The research of the theory and practice of forest health has made the evaluation of forest health operational. In this context, Culai Mountain in Shandong Province was chosen as the research project, and based on data of field investigation and laboratory soil test, five indicators i.e. natural environmental factors, growth factors, biological diversity factors, soil stress factors and resilience factors were analized by using principal component analysis to choose a representative indicator to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of their health, and the results showed that:a) There were some differences of the health of the Culai ecological forest: the health of the pure Alnus japonica forest and pure Robinia pseudoacacia forest was good, their health score are 1.12 and 0.68; The health of Pinus tabulaeformis/Robinia pseudoacacial mixed forest, pure Quercus acutissima forest and pure Pinus densiflora forest were sub-healthy, the healh score are 0.12, -0.03 and -0.21; However, the health level of the pure Pinus tabulaeformis forest, the Pinus tabulaeformis/Platycladus orientalis mixed forest and the pure Larix kaempferi forest were bad, they got the lowest score: -0.38, -0.43 and -0.50. In general, the health state of the hardwood forest was better than that of the coniferous forest.b) The shrub species in Culai ecological forest had few difference, however, there were a lot of differences in the coverage, height and number. Under the pure Pinus densiflora forest and Pinus tabulaeformis/Platycladus orientalis mixed forest, the species with the largest number was shrub. Under the pure forest of Alnus japonica pure forest, there were few shrubs, and there were a few Vitex negundo L. var. heterophylla. under the pure Robinia pseudoacacia forest. The analysis shows that the growth of pure Alnus japonica forest was very fast, and the canopy density were more than 90%, so under the forest, the light transmittance was very bad and this fact has seriously affected the growth of shrubs. There was little difference in herbal biodiversity, and the health of alder and black locust was good while the biological diversity was low; the health of the pure Pinus sp. forest was bad, but the biological diversity was high; because of the high density, there is no obvious advantage in the mixed forest.c) For soil stress, all indexes measured for the Pinus tabulaeformis/Robinia pseudoacacial mixed forest and black locust performed relatively better, in which, organic matter, available phosphorus and nitrogen were higher than other forest plants, and the porosity, K and other indicators were maintained at a high level ; and the worst soil porosity was that from the pure Pinus densiflora forest, but the related indicators of soil nutrients were better than pure Robinia pseudoacacia forest which was consistent with tree height and diameter at breast height; as a whole, the pure hardwood forest and the mixed forest of coniferous and broad leaves was more closely related to organic matter and total nitrogen than the pure forest of coniferous, and relatively higher value were obtained for those indexes. This fact implied that the pure hardwood forest and the mixed forest of coniferous and broad leaves had better effectiveness for soil improvement than the pure forest of coniferous.d) The evaluation analysis showed that the factors which affected Culai forest health was stand density, soil nutrients, tree growth, the shrub layer diversity and natural regeneration capacity. Although the natural environment had great impact on forest health, it was difficult to change the operation model, and the only thing we can do was to change the plant configuration.Through the analysis and evaluation of the health of the Culai ecological forest,we discussed the management measures in this paper. According to the results, we can offer some proposals on specific management measures and overall management programming. The specific level included adjustingstand density, enhancing water and fertilizer management, and protecting the seedlings; and the overall level included afforestation, management of the young forest, tending, improvement of inefficient stand and cutting update, pest and disease control, fire atrip construction and other infrastructure, and during these measurements to make appropriate operating decisions.
        

徂徕山森林公园生态公益林健康评价及经营决策研究

摘要7-9
Abstract9-11
1 引言12-14
    1.1 研究背景12-13
    1.2 我国人工生态公益林建设存在的问题13-14
    1.3 研究的目的与意义14
2 森林健康的研究进展14-26
    2.1 森林健康的概念14-17
    2.2 森林健康评价的研究进展17-20
        2.2.1 国外研究进展17-19
        2.2.2 国内研究进展19-20
    2.3 森林生态系统健康的监测与评价20-26
        2.3.1 森林生态系统健康的评价方法20-22
        2.3.2 森林健康评价的指标体系22-26
            2.3.2.1 森林健康的监测指标22-24
            2.3.2.2 森林健康的评价指标24-26
3 研究地区概况与研究方法26-34
    3.1 研究地区概况26-30
        3.1.1 自然地理概况26-27
            3.1.1.1 地理位置26
            3.1.1.2 地质地貌特征26
            3.1.1.3 土壤种类和分布26-27
            3.1.1.4 气候条件27
        3.1.2 森林资源概况及经营现状27-29
            3.1.2.1 植物资源27
            3.1.2.2 树种结构、林龄及比例27-29
        3.1.3 森林病虫害及防治概况29-30
        3.1.4 森林经营现状30
    3.2 研究方法30-34
        3.2.1 样地选择30-32
        3.2.2 植被调查32-33
        3.2.3 土壤理化性质的测定33
        3.2.4 健康评价方法33-34
4 结果与分析34-48
    4.1 徂徕山生态公益林植被资源现状分析34-39
        4.1.1 徂徕山生态公益林主要乔木树种生长分析34-36
        4.1.2 徂徕山生态公益林林下植被分析36-39
            4.1.2.1 徂徕山生态公益林林下灌木分析36-37
            4.1.2.2 徂徕山生态公益林林下草本层多样性分析37-39
    4.2 徂徕山生态公益林土壤理化性质分析39-42
    4.3 徂徕山生态公益林健康评价42-48
        4.3.1 评价指标体系42-43
        4.3.2 评价特征43-46
        4.3.3 综合评价46-47
        4.3.4 胁迫因子分析47-48
5 徂徕山生态公益林健康经营措施与对策研究48-51
    5.1 造林规划48-49
    5.2 幼龄林抚育49
    5.3 成林抚育49
    5.4 低效林分改造49-50
    5.5 主伐更新50
    5.6 病虫害防治50-51
    5.7 物种入侵51
    5.8 防火道等基础设施建设51
6 讨论与结论51-54
    6.1 讨论51-53
    6.2 结论53-54
参考文献54-64
致谢64-65
论文发表情况65
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