木瓜扦插繁殖技术及生根机理研究

Studies on the Cutting Propagation Technique and Rooting Mechanisem of Chaenomeles

作者: 专业:森林培育 导师:曹帮华 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Chaenomeles, Cutting Rooting, propagation techniques, Anatomy Properties, Rooting Mechanism

        本文以皱皮木瓜和光皮木瓜为研究对象,通过硬枝和嫩枝扦插试验,对木瓜扦插繁殖技术及生根机理进行了研究,旨在为木瓜的扦插生根和苗木培育提供理论依据和技术支撑,同时对木瓜属其它植物的繁殖也有一定的参考价值。其研究结果如下:木瓜扦插繁殖技术试验结果表明,木瓜扦插生根过程可分为愈伤形成期、不定根诱导期和不定根伸长期3个阶段。0.5%高锰酸钾溶液、3%乙醇+0.5%高锰酸钾溶液洗脱液处理分别能促进皱皮木瓜、光皮木瓜插穗生根。单一激素和基质的使用上,3月份,皱皮木瓜经NAA100mg/l处理1h,插于基质珍珠岩:草炭(2:1)中生根率最高,为51.1%,光皮木瓜经IBA500mg/l处理0.5h,插于基质珍珠岩:蛭石(1:1)中生根率最高,达76.7%;在8月份,皱皮木瓜嫩枝插穗经IBA300mg/l处理0.5h插于河沙中,生根率达61.1%,光皮木瓜嫩枝插穗经IBA500mg/l处理10min插于河沙中,生根率达50%。木瓜硬枝扦插中激素组合使用要比单一激素效果好,皱皮木瓜以IBA+NAA,处理效果最佳,生根率达57.8%,光皮木瓜则为混合激素IBA+IAA,生根率达78.9%,分别比CK的生根率提高26.7%、42.2%木瓜生根机理研究结果表明,酶活性变化进程与木瓜扦插生根密切相关,木瓜经激素处理后,提高了POD和PPO活性的同时,降低了IAAO活性,从而改善了生根效果。插穗中的营养物质如可溶性糖含量、全氮含量均随木瓜的生根进程而发生变化,并且呈现一定规律性。无论硬枝还是嫩枝,可溶性糖变化趋势相似,均为“上升-下降-上升”,全氮变化趋势也相似,呈现“上升-下降”趋势;经激素处理后木瓜插穗内的单宁含量均低于CK,从而利于不定根的发生。C/T值与木瓜生根密切相关,C/T比值越大,生根率也越高。木瓜硬枝扦插过程中的IAA、ABA及GA3的动态变化与各自嫩枝生根过程中的变化相同,激素处理能提高木瓜插穗内的IAA水平、GA3水平及IAA/ABA比值,同时降低ABA水平,从而促进生根。皱皮木瓜硬枝形态解剖学研究表明,木瓜属于愈伤组织生根型,插穗扦插前不存在潜伏根原基。不定根原始体在愈伤组织内形成,愈伤组织是孕育不定根的前提,其愈伤组织起源于皮层薄壁组织细胞。
    The cutting propagation technique and rooting mechanism of Chaenomeles such as Chaenomeles Speciosa, Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne was studied on soft and hardwood cuttings,The aim of studies is to provide scientific basis and technological guide for Chaenomeles propagation, and to provide some reference value for other plants of Chaenomeles Lindl. The main results were as follows.The results of cutting propagating experiment showed that that rooting process by cuttings could be divided into three stages, .i e., formation of callus, induction of adventitious roots and elongation of the adventitious roots.The elution treatment by 3% Ethanol, 3% Ethanol+0.5% KMnO4 were able to promote cuttings rooting effect of Chaenomeles Speciosa, Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne respectively. On the use of single hormone、media, For the hardwood cuttings in March, The best rooting rate for Chaenomeles Speciosa was the treatment in the substrate (pearlite and peat volume ratio as 2:1) with 100 mg/l NAA for 1hours, reached 51.1%, and for Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne was the treatment in the substrate (pearlite and vermiculite volume ratio as 2:1) with 500 mg/l IBA for 0.5 hours, reached 76.7%; For the softwood cuttings in August , The best rooting rate for Chaenomeles Speciosa was the treatment in the sand with 300 mg/l IBA for 0.5 hours, reached 61.1%, and for Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne was the treatment in the sand with 500 mg/l IBA for 10 minutes, reached 50%. The hardwood cutting effect of Chaenomeles from treatment by combinative hormones was better than that from hormone alone, both the Chaenomeles Speciosa and Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne, the better effect was obtained by treating for with IBA + NAA(57.8%),IBA + IAA(78.9%), and the rooting rate promote 26.7%,42.2% than CK respectively. The studying of rooting mechanism indicated that the activity of POD, PPO and IAAO correlated with rooting significantly. Exogenous hormone increased the activity of POD and PPO, and decreased the activity of IAAO, which would be benefit for the propagation. The content of nutrient manifested a given rule with the development of rooting, such assoluble sugar and total nitrogen. During the periods of taking roots, Either hardwood or softwood,the trend of assoluble sugar and total nitrogen vary alike; the tendency of assoluble sugar was“enhancing-descending- enhancing”, and the tendency of total nitrogen was“enhancing-descending”. Exogenous hormone increased the content of Tannic content, and promoted rooting process. The results suggsted that the ratio of C/T was tightly related to therooting process of cuttings in Chaenomeles, The higher ratio of C/T was aslo favorable to root. During the periods of taking roots, Either hardwood or softwood, the trend of IAA, ABA and GA3 vary alike respectively, and Exogenous hormone increased the level of IAA, GA3 as well as the ratio of IAA/ABA ,and decreased the level of ABA, which to be suitable indexes for rooting.The anatomical observation on hardwood cuttings of Chaenomeles Speciosa showed that the the rooting type belonged to induced primoridum; There was no induced root primordium in cuttings. Adventitious root primordium formation in callus ,which orginated from the cortical parenchyma cells , is a prerequisite for breeding adventitious roots.
        

木瓜扦插繁殖技术及生根机理研究

中文摘要8-10
Abstract10-11
1 引言12-23
    1.1 研究的目的意义12-13
    1.2 林木扦插繁殖研究进展13-23
        1.2.1 扦插繁殖技术14-19
            1.2.1.1 插穗的选择与处理14-17
            1.2.1.2 扦插的环境因素17-19
        1.2.2 扦插生根的生理生化基础研究19-23
            1.2.2.1 内源生长物质19-21
            1.2.2.2 营养物质21
            1.2.2.3 生根辅助因子和酶类物质21-22
            1.2.2.4 扦插生根的形态解剖学研究22-23
2 材料与方法23-34
    2.1 试验材料与设计23-29
        2.1.1 取材与制备23-24
        2.1.2 试验设计24-29
            2.1.2.1 硬枝试验24-26
            2.1.2.2 嫩枝试验26-29
            2.1.2.3 生根解剖学特性29
    2.2 试验方法29-33
        2.2.1 生根状况观测29
        2.2.2 酶活性测定29-30
        2.2.3 营养物质测定30-31
        2.2.4 单宁含量测定31-32
        2.2.5 内源激素(IAA 、ABA 、GA3)含量的测定32
        2.2.6 永久石蜡切片的制作32-33
    2.3 数据分析33-34
3 结果与分析34-72
    3.1 木瓜扦插繁殖技术研究34-47
        3.1.1 洗脱处理对硬枝扦插生根的影响34-36
        3.1.2 激素种类对硬枝扦插生根的影响36-37
        3.1.3 激素组合对硬枝扦插生根的影响37-38
        3.1.4 激素浓度处理对硬枝扦插生根的影响38-39
        3.1.5 激素处理时间对硬枝扦插生根的影响39-41
        3.1.6 基质对硬枝扦插生根的影响41-42
        3.1.7 扦插时期对嫩枝扦插生根的影响42-43
        3.1.8 激素种类对嫩枝扦插生根的影响43-44
        3.1.9 激素浓度对嫩枝扦插生根的影响44-46
        3.1.10 激素处理时间对嫩枝扦插生根的影响46-47
    3.2 木瓜扦插生理生化研究47-70
        3.2.1 木瓜生根状况观测47-49
            3.2.1.1 光皮木瓜47-48
            3.2.1.2 皱皮木瓜48-49
        3.2.2 扦插生根过程中生根关联酶的变化49-55
            3.2.2.1 硬枝扦插49-52
            3.2.2.2 嫩枝扦插52-55
        3.2.3 木瓜扦插生根过程中营养物质的变化55-59
            3.2.3.1 可溶性糖的变化55-57
            3.2.3.2 全氮变化57-59
        3.2.4 木瓜扦插生根过程中单宁含量的变化59-61
        3.2.5 C/T 变化61-62
        3.2.6 木瓜扦插生根过程中内源激素的变化62-70
            3.2.6.1 硬枝扦插62-66
            3.2.6.2 嫩枝扦插66-70
    3.3 木瓜插穗生根的形态解剖学研究70-72
        3.3.1 木瓜插穗生根形态观察70
        3.3.2 木瓜插穗生根解剖学观察70-72
            3.3.2.1 木瓜插条的愈伤组织的起源部位70-71
            3.3.2.2 木瓜不定根的发生71-72
4 讨论72-76
    4.1 激素与生根关系的讨论72-73
    4.2 基质与生根关系的讨论73
    4.3 生理生化物质代谢与生根关系的讨论73-76
5 结论76-79
    5.1 扦插繁殖技术76-77
    5.2 扦插生根的生理生化研究77-78
    5.3 插条生根的形态解剖学观察78-79
参考文献79-87
附录:扦插照片87-89
致谢89-90
攻读硕士学位期间发表论文情况90
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