施钾时期对甘薯产量和品质形成的调控效应

Regulating Effect of Potassium Application Stages on Yield and Quality Formation of Sweet Potato

作者: 专业:作物栽培学与耕作学 导师:史春余 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Sweet potato, Potassium application stage, Yield, Quality

        为了探讨不同时期施用钾肥对甘薯产量和品质的影响及其生理基础,本试验选用鲁薯8号(兼用型)、济薯23(淀粉型)两个品种为试验材料,于山东农业大学农学实验站和泰安市崅峪镇两个地点进行试验。主要研究结果如下:1施钾时期对甘薯产量的影响及其生理基础施钾处理均能提高块根产量,不同品种、不同地块增产幅度有差异,高淀粉品种(济薯23)对施钾比较敏感,增产潜力更大。封垄期施钾最有利于鲁薯8号增产,基施钾肥最有利于济薯23增产。且提高产量主要是由于提高了单薯重。早期施钾(T2,T3,T5)大薯比率提高,较晚追施钾肥(T4,T6)中薯比率显著提高。本研究中,基施和封垄期施钾,能够在甘薯生长前中期保持较高的光合速率、叶绿素含量和光合势,高峰期施钾处理显著提高了甘薯生长后期的各项生理指标。所以较早施钾能够使甘薯生长前中期光合产物向库运转,使其库容增加。济薯23比鲁薯8号发根缓苗快,结薯早,较早形成了一定容量的代谢库,为获得高产奠定了基础,整个生育期干物质积累快,尤其是生育前中期净同化率高,库源关系协调,光合产物向块根输送多,具有较高的生物产量和经济系数。这是济薯23获得高产的关键。济薯23膨大高峰较早,基施钾肥能够在膨大高峰期时提高各种利于产量形成的生理指标,产量较高,所以基施钾肥效果较好,而鲁薯8号膨大高峰期稍晚,在封垄期追施钾肥能够在其膨大高峰期达到最大肥效,促进了块根膨大,所以对于鲁薯8号来说,封垄期追施钾肥利于膨大和产量提高。由此得出,在甘薯块根膨大期钾肥发挥最大肥效,最有利于增产,在生产中根据甘薯生长特点、需肥时期施用钾肥,效果最佳。2施钾时期对甘薯碳水化合物代谢、块根淀粉积累及淀粉粒度分布的影响2.1施钾时期对甘薯碳水化合物代谢、块根淀粉积累的影响施钾处理后叶、柄、茎的可溶性糖含量均下降,而块根内的可溶性糖含量前中期降低,后期提高。施钾处理后叶、柄、茎的淀粉含量也均下降,但块根淀粉含量升高。这说明施钾提高了甘薯生育前中期源端光合产物的装载能力、库端光合产物的卸载能力以及块根中淀粉合成的能力,促进了干物质向块根的分配,利于增产。而较晚追施钾肥作用时间较短,且错过第一个甘薯膨大高峰期,未能发挥最大肥效。任何时期施用钾肥后均增加了支链淀粉含量,较晚施钾提高支链淀粉更为明显;基施钾肥或早期追施,利于直链淀粉积累。全部钾肥基施有利于提高生长前期SS活性和生长前中期ADPGPPase活性,而封垄期施钾使块根生长中期的SS活性、ADPGPPase活性提高,高峰期施钾提高甘薯生长后期的SS活性、ADPGPPase活性。施钾处理的块根UDPGPPase活性的均比对照(T1)高,但施钾处理之间差异不显著。全部钾肥基施(T2)处理和1/2基施1/2封垄期追施(T5)处理GBSS活性一直保持很高的活性,追施钾肥较晚的处理(T4,T6)不利于提高GBSS活性。施钾处理均比对照(T1)SSS活性高,其中全部钾肥封垄期追施(T3)处理、全部钾肥高峰期追施(T4)处理、1/2基施1/2高峰期追施(T6)处理的SSS活性较高,说明较晚追施钾肥利于支链淀粉的积累。2.2块根淀粉粒度分布状况收获期块根淀粉粒体积分布呈三峰曲线变化,两个峰谷出现位置分别为3.359μm、7.084μm左右,峰值分别出现在1.748μm、5.878μm和19.76μm左右。块根淀粉粒的表面积分布也表现为三峰分布,两个峰谷出现位置和体积分布相同,分别为3.359μm、7.084μm左右,峰值粒径分别为1.593μm、5.878μm和19.76μm左右。块根淀粉粒的数目分布表现为单峰分布,峰值出现在1.204μm左右。不同时期施钾对块根淀粉粒体积分布影响最为显著,其中对中位粒径的影响济薯23比鲁薯8号表现明显,济薯23全部钾肥基施(T2)处理中位粒径最大,而高峰期施钾处理(T4,T6)的中位粒径较小。淀粉粒<7.084μm的范围内的体积所占比例鲁薯8号以全部钾肥基施(T2)处理最高,而济薯23却以高峰期施钾(T6、T4)处理较高,7.084-19.76μm范围内的淀粉粒体积比例两品种均以T6最高,而﹥19.76μm的淀粉粒体积所占比例两品种均以T2最高。此结果说明,高峰期施钾处理(T4、T6)小型淀粉粒、中型淀粉粒所占体积较大,而基施钾肥处理(T2)大型淀粉粒体积所占比例较大。相关性分析表明,直链淀粉含量分别与中位粒径和﹥19.76μm淀粉粒体积百分数呈极显著正相关。支链淀粉含量与<19.76μm淀粉粒体积百分数呈显著正相关,与中位粒径以及﹥19.76μm淀粉粒体积百分数呈显著负相关。支/直比例与<19.76μm淀粉粒体积百分比呈极显著正相关。说明较小淀粉粒中支链淀粉含量高,较大淀粉粒中直链淀粉含量高。3施钾时期对甘薯钾吸收利用的影响甘薯施用钾肥后,钾素产干物质效率和产块根效率都显著降低,施钾处理之间比较,鲁薯8号钾素产干物质效率和产块根效率均为全部钾肥封垄期追施(T3)处理最高,济薯23的钾素产干物质效率和钾素产块根效率规律基本相似,均以T2处理最高。甘薯对钾肥的吸收利用率,鲁薯8号以1/2基施1/2封垄期追施(T5)处理最高,济薯23以全部钾肥基施(T2)处理最高。农学利用率高低与产量结果规律一致。
    Regulating effect of potassium application stages on yield and quality formation of sweet potato was studied by using two sweet potato cultivars including Lushu8 which with medium starch and Jishu23 which with high starch in agronomy experimental station of Shandong Agricultural University and Queyu town of Tai’an. The main results were as follows:1 Effects of potassium application stages on yield of sweet potato and its physiological basisPotassium fertilizer application could increase the storage root yield of sweet potato, Jishu23 which with high starch was better sensitive to K than Lushu8. Applying potassium as top cover fertilizer was best favorable to storage root yield growth of Lushu8 and applying potassium as basal dressing was best favorable to storage root yield growth of Jishu23. Meanwhile, increasing production was mainly due to improve fresh weight of single storage root. Applying potassium early (T2, T3, T5) promoted the ratio of big storage root and applying potassium late (T4, T6) promoted the ratio of medium storage root.In this experiment, applying potassium as basal dressing or top cover fertilizer promoted photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content and LAD at early and middle growth stages of sweet potato and applying potassium as top-growth peak fertilizer increased all the physiological parameters markedly during the late experimental period. Applying potassium early could promote translocation of photosynthate to storeroom to increase storage capacity. Formation and thickening of storage root of Jishu23 was earlier than Lushu8’s and net assimilation rate of Jishu23 was higher at early and middle growth stages of sweet potato. The Relationship of Source-sink of Jishu23 was coordinate and it was beneficial to the transportation of photosynthate to storage root. This was the key to high yield of Jishu23. Because the peak of thickening of Jishu23 was earlier, applying potassium as basal dressing was better. Meanwhile, the peak of thickening of Lushu8 was later, so applying potassium as top cover fertilizer promote storage root thickening rate of sweet potato and yield formation.2 Effects of potassium application stages on carbohydrate metabolism of plant, starch accumulation and granule size distribution in storage root2.1 Effects of potassium application stages on carbohydrate metabolism of plant, and starch accumulation in storage rootSoluble sugar content of leaves, petioles and stems decreased after applying potassium. Soluble sugar content of storage root decreased at early and middle growth stages of sweet potato and opposite results were soluble sugar content of storage root increased during the late period. Starch content of leaves, petioles and stems decreased after applying potassium, but the starch content of storage root was increasing throughout the growth period. These results showed that applying potassium increased loading capacity of photosynthate in the source side, unloading capacity of photosynthate in the sink side and increased accumulation rate of starch in the storage root at early and middle growth stages of sweet potato. It increased the storage root yield after applying potassium due to the coordinative relationship between source and sink of synthesis, including the synthesis, transport and transformation of photosynthate. Applying potassium late had short acting time and missed the action time in the first peak period thickening, and also, it is not achieve the best fertilizer.Applying potassium as basal dressing or top cover fertilizer promoted amylase accumulation and all the treatments applying potassium promoted amylopectin accumulation, particular applying potassium later. Applying potassium as basal dressing was beneficial to improving the SS activity at early growth stages of sweet potato and the ADPGPPase activity at early and middle growth stages of sweet potato. Applying potassium as top cover fertilizer promoted SS and ADPGPPase activity of middle growth stages of sweet potato. Applying potassium as top-growth fertilizer increased SS and ADPGPPase activity during the late growth stage of sweet potato. Applying potassium once as basal dressing (T2) and applying potassium as basal dressing and as top cover fertilizer respectively (T5) had high GBSS activities in the whole growth period. Applying potassium once as top cover fertilizer (T3), applying potassium once as as top-growth fertilizer (T4) and applying potassium as basal dressing and as top-growth fertilizer respectively (T6) increased SSS activities. We could conclude that applying potassium late promoted amylopectin accumulation.2.2 The granule size distribution characteristic of starch in storage root of sweet potatoStorage root of sweet potato in harvest time had three-peak structure in the volume and surface area distribution, in which the valley particle diameters were 3.359μm and 7.084μm.A unimodal curve with the granule diameter about 1.204μm at the peak was seen in starch granule number distribution.Potassium application stages had significant effect on the volume distribution of storage root. The results of subdivided ranges of volume distribution showed that a higher volume percentage of diameter <7.084μm granules, was typical of T2 in comparison with other treatments of Lushu8, and opposite results were seen in Jishu23 that the highest volume percentage of diameter <7.084μm granules were T4 and T6. The results also showed that T6 had the highest percentage of diameter 7.084-19.76μm granules in both two cultivars. Meanwhile, T2 had the highest percentage of diameter﹥19.76μm granules in both two cultivars. it is can be concluded that the treatments applying potassium as top-growth peak fertilizer had high highest percentage of small starch granules and medium starch granules and positively the treatments applying potassium as basal dressing had high highest percentage of big starch granules.The analysis of correlation showed that amylase content was very significantly positive correlation with medium diameter and the volume percentage of diameter﹥19.76μm granules. The amylopectin content was significantly positive correlation with the volume percentage of diameter <19.76μm granules and significantly negative correlation with medium diameter and the volume percentage of diameter﹥19.76μm granules. The proportion of amylose and amylopectin was very significantly positive correlation with the volume percentage of diameter <19.76μm granules. This can be suggested that small granules are high in amylopectin contents and big granules are high in amylase contents. 3 Effects of potassium application stages on the absorption and utilization of potassiumApplying potassium reduced potassium efficiency for the production of biomass and storage roots. The treatment applying all the potassium as top cover fertilizer (T3) was the highest potassium efficiency for the production of biomass and storage roots of Lushu8 and applying all potassium as basal dressing was the highest potassium efficiency for the production of biomass and storage roots of Jishu23. Applying potassium as basal dressing and as top cover fertilizer respectively had the highest uptake efficiency of potassium fertilizer of Lushu8 and applying all potassium as basal dressing was the highest uptake efficiency of potassium fertilizer of Jishu23.The agronomic efficiency showed the same law as that of the yield.
        

施钾时期对甘薯产量和品质形成的调控效应

中文摘要6-10
英文摘要10-13
1 引言14-23
    1.1 目的意义14
    1.2 国内外研究现状14-23
2 材料与方法23-27
    2.1 试验材料23
    2.2 试验设计23
    2.3 取样方法23-24
    2.4 测定项目与方法24-26
    2.5 数据处理与分析26-27
3 结果与分析27-75
    3.1 施钾时期对甘薯产量和品质的影响27-30
        3.1.1 施钾时期对产量及产量构成因素的影响27-28
        3.1.2 施钾时期对不同薯块比率的影响28-29
        3.1.3 施钾时期对收获期块根品质的影响29-30
    3.2 施钾时期对干物质积累与分配的影响30-35
        3.2.1 施钾时期对块根膨大与块根干物质积累的影响30-32
        3.2.2 施钾时期对植株干物质积累与分配的影响32-35
    3.3 施钾时期对植株性状和光合特性的影响35-43
        3.3.1 施钾时期对甘薯植株性状的影响35-38
        3.3.2 施钾时期对光合速率的影响38
        3.3.3 施钾时期对荧光动力学特性的影响38-40
        3.3.4 施钾时期对叶绿素含量变化的影响40-41
        3.3.5 施钾时期对光合势的影响41-42
        3.3.6 施钾时期对净同化率的影响42-43
    3.4 施钾时期对碳水化合物代谢的影响43-57
        3.4.1 施钾时期对各器官可溶性糖含量的影响43-45
        3.4.2 施钾时期对各器官蔗糖含量的影响45-48
        3.4.3 施钾时期对各器官淀粉含量的影响48-50
        3.4.4 施钾时期对块根淀粉及其组分含量和比例的影响50-51
        3.4.5 施钾时期对块根淀粉积累速率的影响51-53
        3.4.6 施钾时期对淀粉代谢过程中关键酶活性的影响53-57
    3.5 施钾时期对甘薯块根淀粉粒度分布特征的影响57-68
        3.5.1 块根淀粉粒度分布状况57
        3.5.2 块根淀粉粒度分布动态57-62
        3.5.3 施钾时期对收获期块根淀粉粒度分布的影响62-67
        3.5.4 淀粉粒体积分布与淀粉性状的相关性分析67-68
    3.6 施钾时期对植株N、K 含量及钾肥吸收利用的影响68-75
4 讨论与结论75-81
    4.1 施钾时期对甘薯干物质积累与分配和产量的影响75-77
    4.2 施钾时期对甘薯碳水化合物代谢、块根淀粉积累及淀粉粒度分布的影响77-80
        4.2.1 施钾时期对甘薯植株可溶性糖、淀粉含量变化的影响77
        4.2.2 施钾时期对块根淀粉积累及相关酶活性的影响77-79
        4.2.3 块根淀粉粒度分布状况79
        4.2.4 施钾时期对块根淀粉粒度体积分布的影响79-80
        4.2.5 淀粉组成与淀粉粒度体积分布的关系80
    4.3 施钾时期对甘薯钾吸收利用的影响80-81
参考文献81-88
致谢88-89
攻读学位期间发表论文情况89
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