夏玉米—冬小麦“双晚”种植方式对周年光温资源利用研究

Study on Annual Utilization of Solar and Heat Resources of Summer Maize and Winter Wheat in Double Late-cropping Patterns

作者: 专业:作物栽培学与耕作学 导师:董树亭 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

summer maize, winter wheat, double late, utilization of solar and heat resources

        夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”种植方式是夏玉米-冬小麦周年高产高效的重要途径。为了进一步明确夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”增产及资源高效利用的效应,选用2个夏玉米品种(郑单958和登海661)和1个冬小麦品种(登海5197)为研究对象,于2008-2009年在山东省莱州市登海种业股份有限公司第16试验场进行大田试验,夏玉米试验在济宁农科院和聊城农科院同时进行。比较研究了不同播期对夏玉米和冬小麦群体物质生产、叶片光合生产特性和生理特性以及周年产量形成的影响,探讨了夏玉米-冬小麦周年光温资源的分配和利用。主要研究结果如下:1夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年产量及产量构成夏玉米直播处理比套种处理籽粒产量增加,收获穗数显著增加,但千粒重有所降低。通过对产量和产量构成因素的相关系数可以看出,收获穗数是产量构成的主要因子,呈显著正相关,且两个品种均达到显著水平。穗粒数和千粒重对产量均呈负相关,但穗粒数和千粒重对产量的相关系数较小且不显著。冬小麦随播期的推迟,收获穗数逐渐降低,千粒重有所增加,穗粒数和籽粒产量呈先上升后降低趋势,最高产量出现在10月15日。夏玉米改套种为直播(播期推迟至6月15日)和冬小麦晚播(播期相应推迟至10月15日)“双晚”种植方式周年产量最高。2夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年光温资源分配利用直播夏玉米全生育期天数明显短于套种,其生育期内总积温和辐射总量分别比套种减少,直播夏玉米对光温资源的占有率较套种低,但光能利用率具有明显优势,尤其直播光能利用率比套种明显提高。冬小麦全生育期内,由于传统播期比晚播生育期天数要多6~11 d,因此传统播期的总积温和总辐射量要明显高于晚播,10月15日播种在全生育期内茎叶、籽粒和全株的光能利用率均高于10月8日和10月22日,表明冬小麦适当晚播可以提高光能利用率。夏玉米6月15日直播结合冬小麦10月15日晚播种得到的周年光能利用率和周年有效积温利用率最高,周年光能利用率和周年有效积温利用率相比其它组合分别提高3.6%~17.9%和5.1%~25.0%,说明适当推迟播期的夏玉米-冬小麦组合能提高周年光温资源利用率。3夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”干物质积累和分配与套种相比,夏玉米直播在开花前和开花后均具有较大的干物质积累量和较快的干物质积累速率,但直播收获系数低于套种。开花期夏玉米的干物质积累分配比例最大的是茎秆,同时直播的茎秆分配比例较套种高,叶片分配比例较套种低;成熟期的干物质积累分配比例最大的的是果穗,且直播的果穗分配比例较套种降低。由各生育期茎叶分配比例与果穗分配比例的相关分析结果表明,成熟期叶片的分配比例对果穗分配比例呈显著负相关,说明直播处理成熟期叶片的干物质向果穗的转运率降低。冬小麦开花前干物质积累量和干物质积累速率随播期的推迟呈下降趋势;开花后,冬小麦的干物质积累量和干物质积累速率随播期的推迟呈先上升后下降趋势,10月15日播期显著高于10月8日和10月22日。全生育期,10月15日播期的干物质积累量和干物质积累速率显著高于10月8日和10月22日。4夏玉米叶片光合生产特性开花后是籽粒产量形成的关键时期,也是植株生理功能渐衰期,玉米花后穗位叶净光合速率均表现出随生育进程逐渐降低的趋势。开花期至花后30 d,直播与套种的穗位叶净光合速率下降缓慢,且直播具有较高的净光合速率;花后30 d至收获期,穗位叶净光合速率降低较快,后期尤为明显,直播的穗位叶净光合速率下降幅度比套种大,成熟期已显著低于套种,这与叶面积指数后期的变化趋势基本一致。直播处理达到最大灌浆速率的时间明显早于套种,起始势较套种高;但灌浆期、活跃灌浆期和灌浆速率最大时的生长量均低于套种,通过灌浆速率特征参数对千粒重的相关分析可见,灌浆活跃期、灌浆速率最大时的生长量、最大灌浆速率对千粒重呈显著正相关,说明直播处理灌浆活跃期短、灌浆速率最大时的生长量低、灌浆速率慢,是导致千粒重较套种降低的原因。开花后至花后30d直播处理叶片的叶绿素a和叶绿素(a+b)含量与套种相比差异较小,但自花后30d至成熟期直播处理叶片的叶绿素a和叶绿素(a+b)含量下降较快,显著低于套种。在整个灌浆期间,直播处理叶绿素b含量均显著低于套种,而叶绿素a/b值和类胡萝卜素含量均显著高于套种。5夏玉米叶片衰老酶活性夏玉米直播处理叶片的SOD、CAT、POD活性和可溶性蛋白含量在开花至灌浆中期与套种差异显著,而后下降较套种快,成熟期显著低于套种。MDA含量表现为随生育期的推迟逐渐升高,自开花至灌浆中期MDA含量增加趋势缓慢,直播处理叶片的MDA含量均低于套种;而灌浆后期,叶片的MDA含量增加明显,直播处理的MDA含量增加幅度较套种大,成熟期已显著高于套种处理。说明直播处理灌浆后期叶片的细胞膜脂过氧化程度加剧。因此,通过有效调节资源配置,将冬小麦冗余的光温资源分配给C4高光效作物玉米,是提高周年高产高效的重要途径。直播较套种有优势,在夏玉米大田生产条件下,重视叶片的光合生产特征,延缓叶片衰老,有利于提高夏玉米的光能利用率,进一步挖掘增产潜力。
    The summer maize-winter wheat rotation is the main crop system in North China plain. The double late-cropping patterns of summer maize and winter wheat is of importance for annual high yield and high efficiency. In order to quantitatively analyze the effects of double late-cropping patterns of summer maize and winter wheat on increasing yield and high resource use efficiency, two cultivars of summer maize(Zhengdan958 and Denghai661) and one cultivar of winter wheat(Denghai5197) were sowed in the No.16 farmland of Denghai Seed Co. Ltd in Laizhou City, Shandong Province in 2008-2009. In addition, summer maize experiment was made simultaneously in Jining Institute of Agricultural Science and Liaocheng Institute of Agricultural Science. The effects of different sowing dates on the dry matter production, the photosynthesis characteristics and physiological characteristics of leaf, and annual yield performance of summer maize and winter wheat were analyzed, and distribution and utilization of annual solar and heat resources of summer maize and winter wheat were studied compared. The principal results were as follows:1. Annual yield and yield components of summer maize and winter wheat in double late-cropping patternsThe grain yield of direct-seeding of summer maize was higher than interplant, and harvest ears were increased significantly, but thousand-grains weight was reduced. The correlation coefficient between yield components and yield showed that harvest ears were the main factor and there was a positive and significant relation between harvest ears and yield components. There was a negative relation amang grains number, thousand-grains weight and yield components, but the correlation coefficient was smaller and insignificant. the spike number of winter wheat was deceased, and thousand-grains weight was increased, and grain number per spike and grain yield was increased firstly and then decreased with the sowing date postponed, the maximum yield occurred on October 15. The annual yield of summer maize (change interplant to direct-planting, and the sowing date postponed to June 15) and winter wheat (the sowing date postponed to October 15) in double late sowing-cropping patterns was the highest.2. Annual distribution and utilization of solar and heat resources of summer maize and winter wheat in double late-cropping patternsThe total growth days of direct-seeding of summer maize was shorter obviously than interplant, and the accumulative temperature and total solar radiation of direct-seeding were decreased respectively than interplant, which implied that distribution rate of solar and heat resources was lower than interplant. But utilization of solar resources of direct-seeding had obvious advantages, especially utilization of solar resources of grain was obviously improved.The accumulative temperature and total solar radiation of traditional sowing date of winter wheat was evidently higher than late sowing date due to the total growth days of traditional sowing date was more by 6-11d than late sowing date. The utilization of solar resources of stem, leaf, grain and whole plant of winter wheat which sowed on October 15 was higher on average than which sowed on October 8 and 22. That indicated that winter wheat which postponed sowing date properly could improve utilization of solar resources.The annual utilization of solar resources and accumulative temperature of summer maize which direct-seeding on June 15 and winter wheat which late sowed on October 15 were the highest by 3.6%-17.9% and 5.1%-25.0% than other sowing-date combinations.3 Accumulation and distribution of dry matter of summer maize and winter wheat in double late-cropping patternsDirect-seeding of summer maize had a higher accumulation of dry matter and a faster crop growth rate before flowering and after flowering compared with interplant, but the harvest index of direct-seeding was lower than interplant. The distribution rate of stem of summer maize was the biggest on flowering, and distribution rate of stem of direct-seeding was higher than interplant, but distribution rate of leaf was lower; the distribution rate of ear was the biggest on maturity, and distribution rate of ear of direct-seeding was lower than interplant. The correlation coefficient between distribution proportion of stem and leaf and distribution proportion of ear in different growth stages showed that there was a negative relation between distribution proportion of leaf and distribution proportion of ear on maturity, which meaned that the transport rate of dry matter from leaf to ear decreased.Accumulation of dry matter and crop growth rate of winter wheat declined with delay of sowing date before flowering, but which increased firstly and then decreased with the sowing date postponed after flowering. Accumulation of dry matter and crop growth rate of sowing on October 15 were higher respectively than which sowed on October 8 and 22.4 The photosynthesis characteristics of leaf of summer maizeThe key period of grain yield performance and gradual senescence of physiological function of leaf was after flowering. Net photosynthesis rate of ear leaf of maize decreased gradually with growth course. Leaf area index and net photosynthetic rate of direct-seeding were higher than interplant significantly from flowering to 30d after anthesis, then it was decreased faster, especially rate of decline of leaf area index and net photosynthetic rate of direct-seeding was larger than interplant, and which was obviously lower on maturity.Characters of grain filling by Richards’model showed direct-seeding reached the maximal grain-filling rate earlier than interplant, and the starting potential of direct-seeding was higher than interplant, while the grain filling period, active grain-filling period and Wmax were lower than interplant. The correlation coefficient between characteristic parameters of grain filling rate and thousand-grains weight showed that there was a positive and significant relation between active grain-filling period, growth weight during the period of maximal grain-filling rate, maximal grain-filling rate and thousand-grains weight. It showed the reason that active grain-filling period was shorter, growth weight during the period of maximal grain-filling rate was smaller, maximal grain-filling rate was slower which lead to decrease thousand-grains weight.The differences of content of chla and chl(a+b) of leaf of direct-seeding was smaller than interplant from flowering to 30d after anthesis, but which decreased faster from 30d after anthesis to maturity. On the whole filling period, content of chlb of leaf of direct-seeding was lower respectively than interplant. On the contrary, chl a/b and carotenoid content of leaf of direct-seeding was higher respectively than interplant.5. The aging enzyme activity of leaf of summer maizeActivity of SOD, CAT, POD and soluble protein content of leaf were different significantly between direct-seeding and interplant from flowering to middle filling period, and which were lower than interplant on maturity. MDA content promoted gradually with growth stage postponed. Content of MDA of direct-seeding was lower on average than interplant from flowering to middle filling period. But Content of MDA of direct-seeding ascended faster and higher significantly than interplant on later filling period. It indicated the lipid peroxidation extent of leaf of direct-seeding had enlarged on later filling period.Thus, the double late-cropping patterns had good performances on grain yield and resource use efficiency. The high annual yield and high production efficiency in double late-cropping patterns were mainly subject to the cropping season of maize, a C4 plant with high photosynthetic efficiency. Directing-seeding was proved to be superior to interplant under the field planting condition. In order to enhance high solar and heat utilization efficiency and excavate yield potential, it’s essential to improve the leaves photosynthesis efficiency and postpone their aging.
        

夏玉米—冬小麦“双晚”种植方式对周年光温资源利用研究

符号说明4-5
目录5-8
中文摘要8-11
英文摘要11-15
1 引言16-31
    1.1 研究目的及意义16-18
    1.2 国内外研究现状18-30
    1.3 技术路线30-31
2 材料与方法31-35
    2.1 试验设计31
    2.2 夏玉米测定内容与方法31-33
        2.2.1 生育时期和叶面积指数31-32
        2.2.2 光合速率32
        2.2.3 干物质积累32
        2.2.4 籽粒灌浆过程的模拟32
        2.2.5 叶绿素含量32-33
        2.2.6 SOD、POD、CAT 活性和MDA 含量的测定33
        2.2.7 产量构成因素33
    2.3 冬小麦测定内容与方法33-34
        2.3.1 基本苗和总茎数33-34
        2.3.2 干物质积累34
        2.3.3 产量构成因素34
    2.4 生育期内光合有效辐射、≥10℃有效积温和光能利用率计算34
    2.5 数据处理34-35
3 结果分析35-66
    3.1 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年籽粒产量及产量构成因素35-40
        3.1.1 不同生态区夏玉米产量及产量构成比较35-38
        3.1.2 冬小麦产量及产量构成比较38-39
        3.1.3 夏玉米-冬小麦周年产量组合比较39-40
    3.2 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”种植方式对生育进程的影响40-41
    3.3 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”种植方式周年光温资源的分配与利用41-47
        3.3.1 夏玉米不同生育阶段光温分布特点41-42
        3.3.2 夏玉米不同生育期光能利用效率比较42-43
        3.3.3 冬小麦不同生育阶段光温分布特点43-44
        3.3.4 冬小麦不同生育期光能利用效率比较44-45
        3.3.5 “双晚”种植模式对夏玉米-冬小麦周年光能利用与分配的影响45-46
        3.3.6 “双晚”种植模式对夏玉米-冬小麦周年有效积温生产效率与分配的影响46-47
    3.4 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”对干物质积累和分配的影响47-50
        3.4.1 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”对干物质积累和作物生长率(CGR)的影响47-48
        3.4.2 “双晚”种植模式对夏玉米干物质积累分配的影响48-50
    3.5 夏玉米的光合生产特性50-59
        3.5.1 夏玉米不同播期叶面积指数(LAI)的变化50-51
        3.5.2 夏玉米不同播期光合速率(P_n)的比较51
        3.5.3 夏玉米籽粒发育51-56
        3.5.4 夏玉米叶片光合色素含量及组成的变化56-59
    3.6 夏玉米叶片衰老酶活性59-64
        3.6.1 SOD 活性59-60
        3.6.2 POD 活性60-61
        3.6.3 CAT 活性61-62
        3.6.4 MDA 含量62-63
        3.6.5 可溶性蛋白含量63-64
    3.7 不同播期下冬小麦群体总茎数的变化64-65
    3.8 不同播期下冬小麦个体生长及群体消长的变化65-66
4 讨论66-72
    4.1 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年产量及产量构成66-67
    4.2 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年光温资源利用67
    4.3 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”干物质积累和分配67-68
    4.4 夏玉米光合生产特性68-70
    4.5 夏玉米叶片衰老酶活性70-72
5 结论72-75
    5.1 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年产量及产量构成72
    5.2 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”周年光温资源利用72
    5.3 夏玉米-冬小麦“双晚”干物质积累和分配72-73
    5.4 夏玉米光合生产特性73-74
    5.5 夏玉米叶片衰老酶活性74-75
参考文献75-84
致谢84-85
攻读学位期间发表论文85
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