臭氧与镉胁迫对冬小麦生理生态特征及品质的影响

Effects of Ozone and Cadmium Stresses on Eco-physiological Traits and Grain Quality in Winter Wheat

作者: 专业:作物栽培学与耕作学 导师:蒋高明 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

cadmium, ozone, quality, Triticum aestivum L., yield

        本试验于2008-2009年在山东农业大学农业生态系统定位研究站进行。以两个小麦品种济麦22(不抗臭氧)和农大311(抗臭氧)为材料在开顶式同化箱(OTC)内盆栽,进行臭氧熏蒸和镉处理。系统研究臭氧与镉对小麦生长发育、光合性能、抗氧化系统、矿质元素吸收及产量和品质的影响。主要研究结果如下:1臭氧与镉对小麦幼苗生长发育的影响O3显著降低JM22的株高(-14.2%)、根长(-12.2%)(p<0.05),同时显著增加了可见伤害(145.3%)(p<0.05),而对相对含水量影响不显著(p>0.05)。Cd对JM22的株高、根长、可见伤害及相对含水量均产生了显著影响。在O3+Cd处理下,株高、根长、相对含水量的降幅分别达到31.2%,60.0%,19.6%。这表明O3加重了Cd对小麦植株造成的伤害,小麦生长进一步受到抑制。O3对ND311的株高、根长、相对含水量及可见伤害的影响均不显著(p>0.05),而Cd对以上指标影响均显著。在O3+Cd处理下,ND311与JM22表现趋势一致。O3显著降低JM22的地下干重(35.7%)、根冠比(21.5%)和总干重(23.8%)(p<0.05),而对地上干重影响不显著。Cd对JM22的地上干重(-38.0%)、地下干重(73.0%)、根冠比(-56.0%)及总干重(-50.0%)影响均显著(p<0.05)。在O3+Cd处理下,地下干重、地下干重、总干重和根冠比的降幅分别为48.6%,81.4%,59.3%,63.9%。ND311与JM22表现趋势一致。2臭氧与镉对小麦幼苗活性氧代谢及膜脂过氧化的影响O3显著升高JM22的SOD(46.5%)、POD(50.0%)、CAT活性(47.8%),并显著升高MDA含量(60.0%)(p<0.05),而O3对ND311的SOD和CAT活性影响不显著。Cd对两品种SOD、POD、CAT活性及MDA含量影响均显著。在O3+Cd处理下,JM22的SOD、POD、CAT活性分别增加100.2%,75.4%,161.2%,而MDA含量仍增加90.0%,表明在O3+Cd处理下,虽然抗氧化酶活性增强仍不能完全抵消臭氧与镉引起的氧化胁迫,造成膜脂过氧化及MDA含量增加。3臭氧与镉对小麦开花后光合性能的影响与对照相比,两品种各处理小麦花后旗叶光合速率、气孔导度及蒸腾速率均呈下降趋势,花后第7天JM22的+O3处理与对照相比无显著差异,但随着处理时间的延长差异逐渐显著,在第14天下降达到显著水平(p<0.05);抗臭氧品种ND311的变化趋势与JM22相似,在处理期间与对照相比差异不显著。+Cd处理两品种旗叶光合速率、气孔导度及蒸腾速率均显著下降。其中O3+Cd处理降幅最大,但与+Cd处理相比差异不显著。两品种各处理小麦花后旗叶最大光化学效率、电子传递速率、光化学淬灭均呈下降趋势,花后第7天JM22的+O3处理与对照相比无显著差异,但随着处理时间的延长差异逐渐显著,在第21天达到显著水平(p<0.05);抗臭氧品种ND311的变化趋势与JM22相似,但在处理期间与对照相比差异不显著。+Cd处理两品种最大光化学效率、电子传递速率、光化学淬灭均显著下降,其中O3+Cd处理降幅最大,但与+Cd处理相比差异不显著。4臭氧与镉对小麦矿质元素代谢的影响镉处理显著提高两品种茎叶、籽粒以及根的镉含量。植株各部分含镉量按从高到底的顺序依次是:根>茎叶>籽粒。JM22籽粒、茎叶及根中镉含量O3+Cd处理分别比+Cd处理高42.0%、41.5%和37.3%。+O3和+Cd处理显著降低JM22籽粒、茎叶及根中B、Mg、P、K、Mn、Zn的含量。例如:+O3处理降低JM22籽粒、茎叶及根中B含量11.3%、16.2%、14.6%,均达到显著水平(p<0.05),+Cd处理显著影响JM22籽粒、茎叶及根中各矿质元素的含量,可以分成两类:一类是抑制效应,即镉处理显著降低籽粒、茎叶及根中B、Mg、P、K、Mn、Zn的含量。例如:+Cd处理分别降低JM22籽粒、茎叶及根中Mg的含量8.8%、15.9%和16.8%,均达到显著水平(p<0.05)。另一类是促进效应,即镉处理显著提高了籽粒、茎叶及根中的Fe、Ca、Cu的含量。例如:+Cd处理分别增加JM22籽粒、茎叶及根中Ca的含量14.1%、18.8%和33.8%,均达到显著水平(p<0.05)。5臭氧与镉对小麦产量与相关品质的影响O3处理显著降低JM22的穗粒数和单穗产量,降幅分别为5.2%,7.4%(p<0.05),而对千粒重和收获指数影响不显著。O3处理也显著降低ND311的穗粒数和单穗产量,对千粒重和收获指数影响不显著。Cd处理显著影响JM22和ND311的穗粒数,降幅分别为20.0%、15.0%(p<0.01);单穗产量降幅分别为26.0%,18.2%(p<0.01);千粒重分别下降21.1%,15.1%(p<0.05),但是Cd对收获指数影响不显著。O3处理显著降低JM22的淀粉含量、蛋白质含量及白度,其中蛋白质含量下降4.8%,但对ND311的淀粉含量和蛋白质含量影响均不显著。Cd处理也显著降低JM22的淀粉含量、蛋白质含量和白度,降幅分别达3.1%,7.0%和2.4%(p<0.05)。
    This study was conducted in the Research Station of Farm Ecosystem of Shandong Agricultural University in 2008 and 2009. Two winter wheat cultivars including JM22(ozone sensitive) and ND311(ozone tolerant) were grown in plastic plots in the presence of ozone (O3) and/or cadmium (Cd) to explore the combined effects of O3 and Cd on the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidative enzyme system, uptake of mineral elements, yield and grain quality of winter wheat. The main conclusions were as followed:1 Effects of O3 and Cd on the growth of wheat seedlingO3 decreased plant height (-14.2%), root length (-12.2%) significantly (p<0.05), while the visible injury was higher (145.3%) compared to the control. The relative water content didn’t reduce significantly. The plant height, root length, and relative water content reduced significantly in +Cd treatment. The reductions of plant height, root length, and relative water content were 31.2%, 60.0%, 19.6%, respectively, indicating the damage of Cd to plants were enhanced by O3. O3 didn’t influence the plant height, root length, relative water content and visible injury of ND311 significantly. The growth of ND311 was inhibited the most in O3+Cd treatment, which has the same trends as JM22.2 Effects of O3 and Cd on the reactive oxygen metabolism and membrane peroxidation of wheat seedlingThe SOD, POD, CAT activity and MDA content of JM22 were 46.5%, 50.0%, 47.8%, and 60.0% higher, respctively compared to the control. However, O3 didn’t influence SOD and CAT activity of ND311 significantly. Cd increased the SOD, POD, CAT activity and MDA content of the two cultivars significantly. The SOD, POD, CAT activity of JM22 were 100.2%, 75.4%, 161.2% higher respectively in O3+Cd treatment, while the MDA content was still 90.0% higher, indicating the increased antioxidant activities might not be enough to completely overcome the adverse effects of both pollutants. 3 Effects of O3 and Cd on the photosynthesis of flag leaf after anthesisThe photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of the two cultivars decreased under +O3, +Cd, O3+Cd treatment compared to the control. The differences become larger while the treatment continued and become significant at 14th day after anthesis. ND311 had similar trend in +O3 treatment, but the difference was not significant. O3+Cd decreased the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of the two cultivars significantly, but the difference was not significant compared to +Cd treatment.The maxmimal photochemical efficiency, electronic transportation rate, and photochemical quenching of the two cultivars decreased under +O3, +Cd, O3+Cd treatment compared to the control. The differences become larger while the treatment continued and become significant at 21st day after anthesis. ND311 had similar trend in +O3 treatment, but the difference was not significant. O3+Cd decreased the maxmimal photochemical efficiency, electronic transportation rate, and photochemical quenching of the two cultivars significantly, but the difference was not significant compared to +Cd treatment.4 Effects of O3 and Cd on the mineral elements content in winter wheatThe Cd contents in different parts of wheat were diverse following this sequence: root > stem and leaf > grain. The Cd content in O3+Cd treatment was higher copared to +Cd treatment, indicating O3 enhanced the uptake of Cd in plants. The B, Mg, P, K, Mn, Zn content of root, stem and leaf, and grain in JM22 were reduced significantly in +O3 and +Cd treatment. For example, the B content in grian, stem and leaf, and root of JM22 reduced 11.3%, 16.2%, 14.6% significantly (p<0.05). The effects of Cd on the mineral elements could be classified into two categories. The first one is inhibition effect, which means that Cd decreased the B, Mg, P, K, Mn, Zn content of grain, stem and leaf and root. For instance, Cd reduced the Mg content in grain, stem and leaf and root in JM22 8.8%, 15.9%, 16.8%, repectively. The other was enhancement effect, which means that Cd increased the Fe, Ca, Cu content in grain, stem and leaf, and root. For example, Cd increased the Ca content in grain, stem and leaf, and root in JM22 14.1%, 18.8%, 33.8%, respectively.5 Effects of O3 and Cd on the yield and grain quality of wheatO3 significantly decreased grain number per spike, grain weight per spike of JM22 5.2%, 7.4%, respectively, but didn’t have significant influence on 1000-grain weight and harvest index. ND311 had the same trend in +O3 treatment. Cd significantly reduced grain number per spike of the two cultivars 20.0%, 15.0%, respectively, grain weight per spike 26.0%, 18.2%, respectively, and 1000-grain weight 21.1%, 15.1%, repectively.O3 decreased starch content, protein content and white of JM22 significantly. For instance, the protein content reduced 4.8% compared to the control, but O3 didn’t have significant influence on starch content, protein content, and white. Cd significantly reduced starch content, protein content, and white of JM22 3.1%, 7.0%, 2.4%, respectively.
        

臭氧与镉胁迫对冬小麦生理生态特征及品质的影响

符号说明4-9
中文摘要9-12
英文摘要12-14
1 引言15-31
    1.1 目的意义15-16
    1.2 臭氧对植物毒害的机制16-20
        1.2.1 近地面臭氧污染现状16
        1.2.2 植物对臭氧的敏感性16-18
        1.2.3 臭氧对作物生理特性的影响18-20
    1.3 镉对植物毒害的机制及其影响因素20-31
        1.3.1 镉污染现状20-21
        1.3.2 镉在植物体内的分布21
        1.3.3 影响镉毒性的因素21-23
        1.3.4 镉污染对植物生长和细胞分裂的影响23-25
        1.3.5 镉对细胞结构的影响25-26
        1.3.6 镉对植物生理生化特性的影响26-28
        1.3.7 植物的耐镉机理28-31
2 材料与方法31-35
    2.1 试验装置31
    2.2 试验设计31-32
    2.3 测定项目及方法32-34
    2.4 数据统计分析34-35
3 结果与分析35-68
    3.1 臭氧与镉对小麦幼苗生长发育的影响35-45
        3.1.1 臭氧与镉对小麦幼苗生长指标的影响35-40
        3.1.2 臭氧与镉对小麦幼苗干物质积累的影响40-45
    3.2 臭氧与镉对小麦幼苗活性氧代谢及膜脂过氧化的影响45-52
        3.2.1 不同处理对超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响45-46
        3.2.2 不同处理对过氧化物酶(POD)活性的影响46-47
        3.2.3 不同处理对过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的影响47-48
        3.2.4 不同处理对丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响48-49
        3.2.5 不同处理对可溶性蛋白含量的影响49-50
        3.2.6 不同处理对脯氨酸含量的影响50-52
    3.3 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后光合性能的影响52-63
        3.3.1 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后旗叶叶绿素含量的影响52-54
        3.3.2 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后旗叶气体交换参数的影响54-59
        3.3.3 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后旗叶荧光参数的影响59-63
    3.4 臭氧与镉对小麦矿质元素代谢的影响63-66
        3.4.1 臭氧对镉在小麦植株中分布的影响63-64
        3.4.2 臭氧与镉对小麦各部分矿质元素含量的影响64-66
    3.5 臭氧与镉对小麦产量与相关品质的影响66-68
        3.5.1 臭氧与镉对小麦产量的影响66-67
        3.5.2 臭氧与镉对小麦相关品质的影响67-68
4 讨论68-74
    4.1 臭氧与镉对小麦生长及干物质积累的影响68
    4.2 臭氧与镉对小麦活性氧代谢及膜脂过氧化的影响68-70
    4.3 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后光合性能的影响70-71
        4.3.1 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后光合速率的影响70-71
        4.3.2 臭氧与镉对小麦开花后荧光参数的影响71
    4.4 臭氧与镉对小麦矿质元素代谢的影响71-72
    4.5 臭氧与镉对小麦产量与相关品质的影响72-74
        4.5.1 臭氧与镉对小麦产量的影响72-73
        4.5.2 臭氧与镉对小麦相关品质的影响73-74
5 结论74-75
    5.1 臭氧与镉抑制小麦根系对矿质元素的吸收74
    5.2 臭氧与镉显著降低花后旗叶光合性能74
    5.3 臭氧与镉显著影响干物质积累及分配74
    5.4 臭氧与镉导致籽粒产量下降、品质降低74-75
参考文献75-88
致谢88-89
攻读硕士期间发表论文情况89
        下载全文需10


本文地址:

上一篇:臭氧对不同生态型大豆品种生理生态特征及产量的影响研究
下一篇:土壤水分和灌溉水配置对冬小麦产量及水氮利用效率的影响

分享到: 分享臭氧与镉胁迫对冬小麦生理生态特征及品质的影响到腾讯微博           收藏
评论排行
公告