草地螟生殖行为和能力及其在不同环境生理条件下的变异

Reproductive Behavior and Capability and It’s Variety on Different Environmental and Circadian Conditions of Beet Webworm, Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

作者: 专业:农业昆虫与害虫防治 导师:罗礼智 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Loxostege sticticalis, mating, ovipositing, sex pheromone, adult weight, temperature, starvation, flight

        草地螟Loxostege sticticalis L.(鳞翅目:螟蛾科)是我国北方农牧业生产的重大害虫,建国以来已经26年暴发成灾,给我国的农牧业生产造成了很大的经济损失。为了更好地揭示草地螟的发生危害规律,亦为改善和提高草地螟的预测预报和防治技术水平和减少其造成的灾害损失提供科学依据,本文针对国内外对草地螟生殖行为的研究及了解较少的现状,对草地螟的交配、产卵行为和能力,雌蛾性腺提取物及人工合成性信息素主要成分对雄蛾的引诱作用,温度、饥饿和飞行以及蛾重对成虫交配和产卵量的影响作用等进行了系统的研究,获得了一些新的结果,为阐明草地螟的生殖行为及相关影响因子提供了新的科学依据。所获的主要结果为:首次研究阐明了草地螟的交配行为及能力,揭示了温度、饥饿及飞行等因子对其交配行为和能力的影响作用。在室内(22±1℃、RH70%、光照L16:D8)对草地螟交配行为进行研究的结果表明,.成虫交配从4日龄开始,9日龄达到高峰。每日的交配主要发生在晚上熄灯后4-8h,交配高峰出现在最后2h。雌雄成虫都能进行多次交配,交配次数1-6次不等,平均为2.4次。其中以交配2次的比例最高(32.4%),1次的次之(29.4%),之后的比例便随交配次数的增加而下降。成虫交配持续时间从21-148 min不等(n=145),平均为58.7 min。其中以交配持续时间50-70 min的个体最多(42.1%,n=145),30-50 min的次之(36.6%),小于30 min的比例(2.8%)最少。成虫交配持续时间随蛾龄的增加而延长(Y=1.3488x+45.429;r=0.22,P=0.008,n=145);温度(14、18、22、26、30、34℃)对成虫交配率具有显著的影响,其中在22℃和26℃时的交配率最高,分别为96%和92%。而在14、18、30、34℃条件下的交配率分别仅有47.6%、65.2%、68.1%和31.8%。表明成虫交配率在温度超出22-26℃时就会明显下降。此外,温度对每天开始交配时间、高峰时间以及交配持续时间也有明显的影响:如从14到34℃开始交配的时间平均推迟了78 min,交配高峰期则推迟了93 min,而交配持续时间则从84.5 min减少到34.7 min,表明每天成虫开始交配的时间及交配高峰会随温度的升高而推迟,而交配持续时间则随温度的升高而缩短。最后,温度对草地螟的日交配率、交配次数和天数也有显著的影响。其中以22℃和26℃的日交配率最高、交配次数及交配天数最多。当温度超出这些范围时,这些参数就会显著减少。另外,对持续饥饿1、3和5天后再给以补充营养的成虫,对飞行12小时后1、3、5、7日龄的成虫以及飞行过6、12、18和24小时的1日龄成虫的交配率和交配次数进行研究的结果均表明,这些处理对成虫的交配率和交配次数均无显著影响。研究阐明了成虫的产卵行为及能力的同时,揭示了温度、饥饿、成虫体重以及飞行等因子对成虫产卵能力及寿命的影响作用。在22±1℃、RH70%、光照L16:D8的条件下对成虫产卵量进行研究的结果表明,成虫的产卵高峰一般为第二天,高峰过后产卵量急剧下降,产卵量主要集中在开始产卵的头4天;在14、18、22、26、30和34℃条件下对成虫产卵及寿命进行研究的结果为,成虫产卵前期和历期随温度的升高显著缩短。22℃和26℃条件下的产卵量最高,产卵期最长,产卵高峰明显,当温度高于或低于这个范围时,各项指标均明显下降。成虫的寿命与温度呈负相关(r=-0.99),即随温度的升高而减少;此外,雌蛾体重与总产卵量和峰日产卵量为正相关,相关系数分别为0.78和0.67。饥饿对成虫的产卵前期具有显著影响,其中羽化后持续饥饿1和3天的成虫产卵前期显著短于对照的。饥饿5天的成虫产卵前期显著长于饥饿1天和3天的,但与对照差异不显著。饥饿对草地螟产卵高峰日出现时间随饥饿时间的延长推迟,但对成虫产卵量、峰日产卵量及寿命等均无显著影响;对飞行过12h的1、3、5、7日龄成虫的产卵前期和产卵量进行研究的结果表明,1和7日龄飞行的产卵前期显著长于对照的,但3和5日龄的产卵前期与对照的差异不显著,而飞行过的成虫产卵量与对照的差异不显著。另外,1日龄成虫飞行6h的产卵前期与对照的没有显著差异,而飞行12、18和24h的成虫产卵前期显著长于对照和飞行6h的。此外,随着飞行强度的增加,一日龄成虫产卵量均随飞行强度的增加而减少,但差异都不显著。研究阐明了雌蛾蛾性信息素腺体的形态特征。应用不同日龄雌蛾性腺提取物及人工合成性信息素组分对雄蛾的引诱作用进行了研究。主要的结果为:应用扫描电镜研究明确了草地螟雌蛾性信息素腺体位于第8-9节间膜腹面,其表面分布着许多刺状刚毛体;应用1-11日龄处女雌蛾腺体粗提物在风洞对6日龄雄蛾的行为反应进行测试的结果表明,1和3日龄雌蛾腺体提取物对雄蛾的引诱活性不高,产生求偶反应和到达性信息素源的比例小于15%和10%,5日龄后的腺体提取物引诱活性明显升高,到达性信息素诱芯的比例超过30%;通过室内外相结合的方法对加拿大报道的草地螟人工合成性信息素组分对6日龄雄蛾在风洞中的测试结果表明,无论是单一组分还是混合组分,其对雄蛾的引诱作用均低于处女雌蛾性腺提取物的,到达性信息素源的比例均不到20%。另外,应用这些组分制成的诱芯在田间均诱不到雄蛾,表明北美报道的草地螟性信息素组分对我国草地螟的种群没有引诱作用。
    The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) is one of the major serious agricultural pests in northern China. There have been 26 outbreak years since 1949, and resulted in great yield damage and economic loss during the outbreak years. In order to improve the forecasting and controlling technology of beet webworm based on the ecological and physiological factors of population dynamics, this thesis mainly focused on mating and reproductive behavior, the temptation to the synthetic sex pheromone and the effects of temperature, starvation and flight to fecundity of the beet webworm, the major results obtained were as follows:The mating behavior of L. sticticalis moths were studied under the laboratory conditions (22±1℃, RH 70%, and photoperiod L16:D8). The results indicated that both male and female moths began their mating from day-4, and reached mating peak on day-9. The each daily mating occurred at 4-8 hours after lights off and the mating peak occurred at last 2h. Both male and female moths could multiple mate, mating 1-6 times, 2.4 times on average. Twice-mating was the highest proportion of 32.4%, once-mating followed of 29.4%, and then the proportion deceased with the mating times increasing. Mating duration of the moths lasted from 21 to 148 min (n=145), most mating lasted 50-70 min (42.1%, n=145), followed by 30-50 min (36.6%), less than 30 min (2.8%), and 58.7 min on average. Furthermore, mating duration became longer with moth aged(Y=1.2918x+46.676, r=0.22, P=0.008, n=145); Temperature effected the mating behavior significantly. Firstly, mating rate at 22 and 26℃was 96% and 92% respectively, and at 14,18,30,34℃the mating rate was 47.6%,65.2%,68.1% and 31.8%. This results indicated that mating rate obviously decreased when the temperature out of the range of 22 to 26℃. Secondly, temperature effected each-day initial time, peak time of mating and mating duration obviously:when the temperature changed from 14 to 34℃the beginning time delayed 78min on average, the mating peak delayed 93min, and the mating duration decreased from 84.5 min to 34.7 min, which demonstrated that initial time and peak time of mating delayed with the temperature increasing, and mating duration decreased with the temperature increasing. Lastly, temperature effected the daily mating rate, mating times and days significantly. At 22 and 26℃the daily mating rate, mating frequency and mating days were significantly higher than the others. Besides, starvation and flight had no statistical effect on the mating rate, mating frequency.Based on the study of reproduction of adult L. sticticalis moths, the effect of temperature, starvation, adult weight and fight on oviposition and adult longevity had also been researched. L. sticticalis moths laid most of the eggs (40%-70%) in the first 4 days during the oviposition period. Firstly, preoviposition period and oviposition period shortened significantly with the temperature increasing. At 22℃and 26℃, the total fecundity was the most abundant, the oviposition period was the longest, and the oviposition peak was most obvious; each reproductive parameter decreased when the temperature was beyond the range of 22-26℃. The regression analysis told that the adult longevity and temperature correlates significantly negatively (r=-0.99). Secondly, female weigh positively correlated to the fecundity and each day peal fecundity, the correlation coefficient was 0.78 and 0.67. The preoviposition period after 1 day and 3 days starvation was significantly short than the control. And after 5 days starvation the preoviposition period was significantly longer than 1 day and 3 days starvation, but had no statistical difference to the control. However, starvation had no obvious effect on fecundity, peak daily eggs and adult longevity. Thirdly, the preoviposition period of 1-day and 7-day prolonged significantly than the control after 12h-flight, and the 3-day and 5-day had no statistical difference to the control.12h-flight had no statistical effect on the fecundity. For the 1-day flight for 6h the preoviposition period had no statistical difference to the control, whereas, the preoviposition period didn’t statistically differ from the control and the 6h-flight after flight for 12h,18h and 24h. Besides, the fecundity of 1-day decreased with the flight strengthened, but the diference was not significant.The sex pheromone gland (PG) of the female adult was observed by using scanning electron microscope, it located at the eighth and ninth abdominal inter-segment and covered with small spines on the surface. The crude extracts of the PG of 1-day and 3-day female had on obvious inducing effect on the male, and calling and orientation rate of male was less than 15% and 10% respectively. Furthermore, we examined the synthetic sex pheromone identified in Canada in lab and field, nither the single nor composited component of the sex pheromone had better inducing activity to the male than the crude PG extracts. And the lure produced by the reported compent was not able to induce the male moth in field.
        

草地螟生殖行为和能力及其在不同环境生理条件下的变异

摘要7-9
Abstract9-10
1 前言11-25
    1.1 草地螟的研究进展11-20
        1.1.1 草地螟的发生与危害11-12
        1.1.2 草地螟的生物学特性12-13
        1.1.3 草地螟的迁飞13-15
        1.1.4 草地螟的预测预报15-17
        1.1.5 主要环境因子对草地螟发生危害规律影响17-20
            1.1.5.1 温度17
            1.1.5.2 湿度17-18
            1.1.5.3 光周期18-19
            1.1.5.4 食物19
            1.1.5.5 天敌19-20
            1.1.5.6 环境的综合效应20
    1.2 昆虫性信息素的应用研究20-23
        1.2.1 昆虫性信息素的概念20-21
        1.2.2 预测预报21-22
        1.2.3 害虫防治22-23
            1.2.3.1 大量诱捕22
            1.2.3.2 交配干扰22-23
        1.2.4 草地螟性信息素应用研究23
    1.3 研究目的和意义23-25
2 材料与方法25-30
    2.1 供试虫源及饲养方法25
    2.2 草地螟交配、产卵行为观察25
    2.3 影响因子研究的试验方法25-26
        2.3.1 温度处理25
        2.3.2 成虫体重测定25-26
        2.3.3 饥饿处理26
        2.3.4 吊飞处理26
    2.4 草地螟人工合成性信息素成分生测方法26-29
        2.4.1 性腺电镜扫描26-27
        2.4.2 雌蛾性腺粗提物诱芯27
        2.4.3 人工合成性信息素诱芯27-28
        2.4.4 风洞装置和雄蛾反应标准28
        2.4.5 田间生测28-29
    2.5 相关参数确定与统计方法29-30
3 结果与分析30-63
    3.1 草地螟的交配行为及其主要影响因子研究30-43
        3.1.1 交配行为及节律30-34
            3.1.1.1 行为观察30
            3.1.1.2 交配的昼夜节律30-31
            3.1.1.3 交配持续时间31-33
            3.1.1.4 日交配率与日龄的关系33
            3.1.1.5 交配次数33-34
        3.1.2 温度对交配的影响34-39
            3.1.2.1 总交配率和日交配率34-36
            3.1.2.2 交配时间36-38
            3.1.2.3 交配次数38-39
        3.1.3 饥饿胁迫对交配的影响39-40
            3.1.3.1 饥饿测试39
            3.1.3.2 交配率和交配次数39-40
        3.1.4 飞行对交配的影响40-43
            3.1.4.1 不同日龄成虫飞行后的交配率和交配次数40-42
            3.1.4.2 一日龄成虫不同飞行强度后的交配率和交配次数42-43
    3.2 草地螟的产卵行为及其主要影响因子研究43-59
        3.2.1 产卵行为及节律43-44
        3.2.2 温度对产卵和寿命的影响44-50
            3.2.2.1 产卵前期和产卵历期44-45
            3.2.2.2 总产卵量和峰日卵量45-47
            3.2.2.3 日产卵量47-48
            3.2.2.4 寿命48-50
        3.2.3 成虫体重与产卵量的关系50-51
            3.2.3.1 成虫体重与总产卵量的关系50
            3.2.3.2 成虫体重与峰日卵量的关系50-51
        3.2.4 饥饿胁迫对成虫产卵的影响51-55
            3.2.4.1 产卵前期51-52
            3.2.4.2 日产卵量52-54
            3.2.4.3 生殖和寿命54-55
        3.2.5 飞行对产卵的影响55-59
            3.2.5.1 不同日龄飞行对产卵的影响55-57
            3.2.5.2 一日龄成虫飞行强度对其产卵能力和寿命的影响57-59
    3.3 草地螟性信息素对雄蛾的引诱作用59-63
        3.3.1 雌蛾性腺的形态特征59-60
        3.3.2 雄蛾对雌蛾性腺提取物的行为反应60-61
        3.3.3 雄蛾对人工合成信息素的行为反应61-62
        3.3.4 人工合成性信息素的田间测试62-63
4 小结与讨论63-70
    4.1 草地螟的交配行为及其主要影响因子研究63-64
    4.2 草地螟的产卵行为及其主要影响因子研究64-67
        4.2.1 温度对产卵和寿命的影响64-65
        4.2.2 成虫体重与产卵量的关系65
        4.2.3 饥饿胁迫对成虫产卵的影响65-66
        4.2.4 飞行对产卵的影响66-67
    4.3 草地螟性信息素对雄蛾的引诱作用67-68
    4.4 取得进展与不足68-70
参考文献70-76
致谢76
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