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无机粉体填充PBA/淀粉互穿聚合物网络材料的合成

Synthesis of Poly Butyl Acrylate/Starch Ipterpenetrating Polymer Networks Filled with Inorganic Powder

作者: 专业:农药学 导师:尹业平 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

IPN, starch, mechanical property, rheology property, compatibility

        互穿聚合物网络(Interpenetrating Polymer Network,简称IPN)是高分子聚合物共混改性的一种重要方法,利用IPN技术特有的缠结和互容特性可以提高共混物的相容性。本论文利用IPN技术将一定量的无机粉体填充到聚丙烯酸丁酯和淀粉的共混体系中,并对共混物进行了一系列的性能测试研究。实验中采用种子乳液聚合的方式,用丙烯酸(AA)改性丙烯酸丁酯(BA),用N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,制备了丙烯酸含量分别为0%、2%、4%、6%、8%、10%、12%的一系列共聚物乳液,通过测试乳液性能和比较确定了丙烯酸的最佳用量。然后选取丙烯酸含量为10%的乳液和淀粉以一定的配比共混,同时分别以碳酸钙、滑石粉和膨润土三种无机粉体填充,在机械搅拌作用下形成IPN网络结构。通过透射电镜观察,分析了乳液和淀粉间相互作用情况,研究了丙烯酸用量、淀粉用量、填充剂用量及填充剂种类对共混体系的吸水性、力学性能、流变性及热性能的影响。研究结果如下:1.丙烯酸的加入使聚合过程变得稳定,提高了乳液的固含量,并使乳液具备很好的机械稳定性和离子稳定性;2.由于复合材料中含有亲水性单体丙烯酸和淀粉,材料在10h之内吸水率迅速上升达到40%左右,当添加碳酸钙、滑石粉和膨润土三种填充剂之后,材料的吸水能力各不相同,总体来说,膨润土使得材料的吸水性能大幅度提高,而碳酸钙和滑石粉在一定的范围内使材料的吸水性降低;3.经拉伸测试表明丙烯酸的加入可以使材料的断裂伸长率和断裂强度均有所提高,淀粉含量应控制在25%左右,太多会使材料变得硬脆。经三种材料填充后发现碳酸钙和滑石粉均可以改善力学性能,而膨润土则使材料的断裂伸长率和拉伸强度均下降;4.用旋转粘度计测试了共混物的流变性,结果得出共混体系的非牛顿指数均小于1,为切力变稀的假塑性流体;5.从透射电镜照片可以看出材料经三种填充剂填充后聚丙烯酸丁酯和淀粉颗粒的相容性均有所提高,其中滑石粉对整个体系的增容效果最好,碳酸钙的次之,膨润土的最差。6.从材料的DSC测试和TG测试中可以看出,无机粉体填充后材料的稳定性均有所提高,其中碳酸钙对改善材料的热稳定性起到了良好效果。
    Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) is an important mothod to modify the copolymer and improve the compatibility of polymer blends. In this paper, the blending sistem of poly-butyl acrylate (PBA)) and starch filled with a certain amount of inorganic powder were synthesized by IPN technology and a series properties of blends were tested.The poly-butyl acrylate was synthesized through emulsion polymerization. The polymer was modified by acrylic acid and the most suitable content of acrylic acid was determined through testing the latex and comparative analysis. Afterwards, the polyester contained 10%AA was blended with starch and three kinds of fillers. The mechanical properties, rheological properties, thermal stability and morphology were evaluted and the effects of various factors such as A A content, starch content and filler content were studied. The main results are summarized as follows:1. The acrylic acid act as a good modification. The latex become more stable and have the higher solid content. Besides, the latex have very good mechanical stability and ion stability.2. The water absorption ratio of the materials come to 40% quickly in 10 hours because they contain hydrophilic substances such as acrylic acid and starch. The power of water absorption vary with the species of fillers. In general, the bentonite enhance the power of water absorption greatly. On the contrary, the talcum powder and calcium carbonate can attenuate the water absorption of the material.3. Mechanical properties of polyester became better when it was modified by acrylic acid. The content of starch must not exceed 25%, or the film became stiff and crisp. The talculm powder and calcium carbonate can improve the mechanical properties of the films but the bentonite can not.4. Using rotating viscometer to obtain the rheological properties:the non-Newtonian index of the blend melts are all less than one. The blends melts are all sheering thinning and pseudoplastic fluid.5. The TEM micrographs shows that the compatibility of polyester and starch blends is improved differently. As a whole, the effect of talcum powder is best and lead to a better dispersion and homogeneity of starch in the polyester matrix.6. From the testing results of DSC and TG, the thermal stability of materials filled with inorganic has been improved.
        

无机粉体填充PBA/淀粉互穿聚合物网络材料的合成

摘要6-7
ABSTRACT7
第一章 前言8-20
    1.1 课题研究背景及意义8
    1.2 淀粉基生物降解塑料8-12
        1.2.1 淀粉的结构和性质8-9
        1.2.2 淀粉基塑料的研究现状和展望9-12
    1.3 互穿聚合物网络(IPN)12-16
        1.3.1 概述12-13
        1.3.2 IPN的分类及其形态结构的影响因素13-15
        1.3.3 IPN的研究方法15-16
    1.4 填充改性复合材料16-18
        1.4.1 复合材料填充改性的研究背景16-17
        1.4.2 填料的种类及应用状况17-18
    1.5 本课题研究内容及技术路线18-20
        1.5.1 研究内容18-19
        1.5.2 课题技术路线19-20
第二章 实验部分20-25
    2.1 实验材料20
    2.2 主要仪器设备20
    2.3 实验内容20-25
        2.3.1 乳液的制备方法20-21
        2.3.2 乳液的性质测定21-23
        2.3.3 淀粉的糊化23
        2.3.4 共混物薄膜的制备23
        2.3.5 薄膜的性能测试23-25
第三章 结果与分析25-51
    3.1 乳液的性能25-30
        3.1.1 乳液及涂膜的外观25
        3.1.2 乳液聚合的稳定性25-26
        3.1.3 乳液的固含量26-27
        3.1.4 离子稳定性27
        3.1.5 乳液的稳定性27-28
        3.1.6 pH值28
        3.1.7 乳液的粘度28-29
        3.1.8 乳胶膜的吸水率29-30
        3.1.9 其它因素的影响30
    3.2 复合材料的吸水性30-33
        3.2.1 丙烯酸含量对材料吸水性的影响30-31
        3.2.2 淀粉含量对材料吸水性的影响31-32
        3.2.3 填充剂对材料吸水性的影响32-33
    3.3 复合材料的力学性能33-39
        3.3.1 丙烯酸含量对材料力学性能的影响33-34
        3.3.2 淀粉含量对材料力学性能的影响34-35
        3.3.3 反应时间对材料力学性能的影响35-36
        3.3.4 反应温度对材料力学性能的影响36-37
        3.3.5 填充剂对材料力学性能的影响37-39
    3.4 复合材料的流变性39-46
        3.4.1 流体的类型39-40
        3.4.2 非牛顿指数n和组成的关系40-42
        3.4.3 表观黏度η与组成的关系42-44
        3.4.4 温度对材料流变性的影响44-45
        3.4.5 粘流活化能E_a45-46
    3.5 复合材料的微观形态46-48
    3.6 复合材料的热分析48-51
        3.6.1 复合材料的DSC测试49
        3.6.2 复合材料的TG测试49-51
第四章 结论51-53
参考文献53-60
致谢60
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