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基于GPU加速的真实感渲染系统研究与实现

Research and Implementation of Photorealistic Rendering System Based on GPU Acceleration

作者: 专业:计算机应用技术 导师:李建明 年度:2010  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

        真实感渲染是计算机图形学、计算机视觉和虚拟现实等领域的研究热点。在娱乐、可视化仿真和教育等诸多领域有着广泛的应用。真实感渲染算法的研究成果也推动了渲染系统的发展。本文通过对渲染算法的研究与改进,完成了一套完整的渲染系统。该系统充分利用了新一代GPU渲染管线,相对于传统的渲染系统,在渲染的真实性和高效性方面做了较大改进。在渲染算法研究方面,本文提出了基于自适应采样的环境遮挡算法,该算法重点解决了传统环境遮挡算法中的盲目采样问题,利用插值采样光线的方式计算物体的遮挡率,并将插值采样光线的生成巧妙地转化为模型细分问题,很大程度上减少了算法的计算量。实验表明,该方法能够使环境遮挡算法的效率得到很大的提升。在渲染系统的实现方面,本文介绍了渲染系统的架构以及一些核心模块。系统架构针对新一代GPU的特性做了较大调整,利用几何体实例化减少了渲染批次的调用。底层数学运算和资源管理的优化,KD-Tree在场景管理中的应用提高了系统的渲染效率。环境遮挡贴图的利用,摄像机的景深特效,延迟渲染对多动态光源的支持,增强了渲染系统的真实感。本文的最后,设定了多个具有代表性的场景,对渲染系统的渲染效果和性能做了较为全面的评估。
    Photorealistic rendering is a research hotspot in the area of computer graphics, computer vision and virtual reality, and has been widely applied in many fields such as entertainment, visual simulation, education, etc. The study achievement of photorealistic rendering algorithm has also contributed to the development of rendering system. Through study and modification of the rendering algorithms, the article has created a complete rendering system. The system makes full use of new GPU rendering pipeline, and has made great improvement in the authenticity and efficiency of rendering compared to the traditional rendering system.Regarding the research on rendering algorithm, the article proposed an ambient occlusion algorithm based on adaptive sampling, which mainly focused on solving the problem of blind sampling in traditional ambient occlusion algorithm by using the interpolated sampling light to calculate the occlusion rate, and converting the generation of interpolated sampling light into a subdivision issue. This algorithm reduces the computational complexity to a great degree and experiments show that the method could significantly improve the efficiency of ambient occlusion algorithm.As for the implementation of the rendering system, the article introduces the architecture and some core modules. Major adjustments have been made to the system architecture according to some features of the new generation GPU, using geometry instancing to reduce the rendering batch calls. The basic mathematical calculation and resource management optimization, as well as the application of KD-Tree in scene management have improved rendering efficiency of the system. The using of ambient occlusion map, depth of field effects of the camera and the support for multi-dynamic lights by deferred shading, successfully enhanced the sense of reality for the rendering system.In the end, the article set a number of representative scenarios and made a comprehensive assessment of the rendering effect and performance of the system.
        

基于GPU加速的真实感渲染系统研究与实现

摘要4-5
Abstract5
1 真实感渲染算法综述8-22
    1.1 真实感渲染算法及应用8-21
        1.1.1 全局光照算法8-17
        1.1.2 动态光源与效率17-19
        1.1.3 真实感渲染系统的演变19-21
    1.2 本文的主要内容21-22
2 GPU及渲染管线的发展现状22-32
    2.1 GPU硬件体系结构的发展22-25
    2.2 图形渲染管线25-32
        2.2.1 顶点处理阶段25-27
        2.2.2 镶嵌阶段27-29
        2.2.3 几何处理阶段29-30
        2.2.4 光栅化阶段30
        2.2.5 像素处理阶段30-32
3 基于自适应采样的环境遮挡算法32-41
    3.1 环境遮挡算法及其加速手段32-34
    3.2 环境遮挡算法的盲目采样问题34-35
    3.3 基于3~(1/3)细分规则的插值采样35-37
    3.4 遮挡率的计算37-39
    3.5 环境遮挡算法对比实验39-41
4 系统实现及实验结果41-64
    4.1 真实感渲染系统的总体架构设计41-42
    4.2 数学库与资源管理模块设计42-46
        4.2.1 数学运算的实现及优化42-44
        4.2.2 资源管理44-46
    4.3 场景管理模块设计46-54
        4.3.1 场景树的管理及KD-Tree加速46-49
        4.3.2 场景节点的实例化49-52
        4.3.3 摄像机管理52-54
    4.4 渲染模块设计54-59
        4.4.1 渲染模块的结构54-56
        4.4.2 材质管理56-57
        4.4.3 延迟渲染57-59
    4.5 系统渲染效果及下一步工作59-64
结论64-65
参考文献65-68
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况68-69
致谢69-71
        下载全文需71


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