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PID控制器参数整定技术研究与优化设计

PID Controller Parameter Tuning and Optimization Technology

作者: 专业:控制理论与控制工程 导师:仲崇权 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

PID controller, parameter auto-tuning, Z-N tuning formula, relay feedback, controlled object

        PID控制器及其改进型控制器是工业过程控制中最常见的一种控制调节器。PID参数的整定一般需要经验丰富的工程技术人员来完成,既耗时又耗力,加之实际系统千差万别,又有滞后、非线性等因素,使PID参数的整定有一定的难度,致使许多PID控制器没能整定的很好,这样的系统自然无法工作在令人满意的状态,为此人们提出了自整定PID控制器。将过程动态性能的确定和PID控制器参数的整定方法结合起来就可实现PID控制器的自整定。所以,研究PID参数整定技术就具有了十分重大的工程实践意义。本文首先阐述了PID控制器的算法特点、理论基础,参数对控制性能的影响,着重介绍了基于继电反馈的PID参数自整定算法的基本原理,并根据瑞典学者K.J.Astrom提出的在继电反馈下观测被控过程的极限环振荡以及Z-N整定公式,详细地推导了相应的PID控制器参数整定公式。鉴于传统的基于继电反馈的PID参数整定方法,需要被控过程有较大的过冲,存在着一种对资源的浪费,文中提出了一种避免过冲控制过程的PID参数整定方法。并介绍了基于飞升曲线法的PID参数自整定算法的基本原理,以PEC8000以太网可编程控制器为平台,利用温度传感器采集温度,上位机通过以太网读取PEC8000中转换后的温度值,通过设定温度值与采集温度值的大小比较来控制固态继电器的通断,实现对被控对象的控温。该参数整定方法将被控对象近似为-阶惯性加纯滞后的数学模型,基本上涵盖了大部分被控对象,很容易在工业控制系统中实现。文中所设计的参数自整定控制系统是将经典PID控制算法和参数自整定算法相结合.,通过PWM脉宽调制技术控制固态继电器的通断来调节输出控制量的大小,从而实现对被控对象的温度控制。该系统能根据设定的温度值,实现温度的自动采集和参数的自整定输出控制。解决了传统控制中PID参数不易整定的缺点,有效的减小了被控对象的超调量,提高了控制系统的控制精度。文章重点阐述了系统参数的自整定工作原理以及系统软硬件的结构设计和实现,并通过大量实验验证了该方法的可行性。该算法很容易在工业控制系统中实现,控制效果较好。在总结与展望部分,对全文的所做的研究工作以及所存在的问题进行了总结,并对未来PID控制器的发展前景进行了展望。
    Improved PID (Proportional, Integral and Differential) controller and the controller is the most common industrial process control regulator. PID parameter setting of the general need of experienced engineers and technicians to complete, time-consuming and labor-intensive, combined with the actual system vary widely, there are lags, nonlinear and other factors, the PID parameter setting of a certain degree of difficulty, causing many PID controller did not tuning well, such a system naturally can not work in a satisfactory state, so a self-tuning PID controller is raised. Dynamic performance of the process of identification and PID controller tuning method of parameters can be achieved combining the self-tuning PID controller. Therefore, research on PID parameter tuning technique works with a very great practical significance.This paper describes the characteristics of PID controller algorithm, theoretical basis, the impact of parameters on the control performance, focusing on relay feedback based on self-tuning PID parameters of the basic principles of the algorithm, and made according to the Swedish scholars KJ.Astrom in the relay feedback controlled process under the observation of limit cycle oscillations and the Z-N tuning formula, a detailed derivation of the corresponding PID controller parameter tuning formula. The traditional relay-based PID feedback tuning method, you need to have large controlled processes overshoot, there is a waste of resources. This paper proposes a control process without overshoot tuning method of PID parameter. And introduced the basic principles of the soaring curve based on PID parameter auto-tuning algorithm. And with the programmable Ethernet controller (PEC8000) to be a platform, use the temperature sensors to collect temperature, host computer via Ethernet reading the temperature of PEC8000 transited, collected by setting the temperature value and temperature compared to the size of the solid state relay on-off control, temperature control to achieve the controlled object. This parameter tuning method will be charged with first-order inertial object is approximately the mathematical model plus time delay basically covers most of the controlled object, it is easy to implement in industrial control systems. The paper designs the parameter auto-tuning control system which combines the classical PID arithmetic and parameter auto-tuning arithmetic, and realize the constant temperature control of controlled object through controlling on-off of the solid state relay by the PWM impulse width modulation. The system can achieve the temperature of automatic collection and auto-tuning control according to the enactment temperature. And resolve the traditional PID control tuning parameters of the shortcomings of ineffective tuning, effectively reduced the overshoot of the controlled object and improve the controller’s precision. The emphasis is laid on the principle of the parameter auto-tuning control system, software and hardware design methods. And by a large number of experiments show the feasibility of the method. The algorithm is easy to implement in industrial control systems, control is better.Summary and outlook in last part, to the full text of the research work done and the problems are summarized, and the future development of PID controller prospect.
        

PID控制器参数整定技术研究与优化设计

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
第一章 绪论9-13
    1.1 引言9-10
    1.2 PID控制的发展10-11
    1.3 PID控制中存在的问题与研究重点11-12
    1.4 本文主要工作和结构安排12-13
第二章 数字PID控制器的算法与参数整定方法13-32
    2.1 PID控制器基本原理13-15
    2.2 数字PID控制算法15-17
        2.2.1 位置式PID控制算法15-16
        2.2.2 增量式PID控制算法16-17
    2.3 数字PID控制算法的改进17-25
        2.3.1 带限位的PID控制算法17-18
        2.3.2 积分分离PID控制算法18
        2.3.3 变速积分PID控制算法18-19
        2.3.4 不完全微分PID控制算法19-24
        2.3.5 微分先行的PID控制算法24
        2.3.6 带死区的PID控制算法24-25
    2.4 Z-N法及改进Z-N法25-27
    2.5 其他参数整定方法27-31
        2.5.1 ISTE最优整定法27-30
        2.5.2 特征面积法30-31
    2.6 小结31-32
第三章 继电反馈的PID参数整定技术32-47
    3.1 描述函数法32-33
    3.2 继电反馈理论基础33-36
    3.3 继电特性的选择36-37
    3.4 参数整定规则37-38
    3.5 PID自整定控制系统的设计与实验38-46
        3.5.1 系统的总体结构38-40
        3.5.2 系统软件设计40-42
        3.5.3 基于继电反馈的PID自整定实验42-46
    3.6 小结46-47
第四章 避免过冲过程的PID参数自整定技术47-57
    4.1 阶跃响应法及改进PID模型设计47-51
    4.2 交叉两点法确定对象特征参数51-53
    4.3 自整定控制系统的设计53-54
        4.3.1 控制系统框图设计53-54
        4.3.2 主程序控制流程图54
    4.4 实验结果及分析54-56
    4.5 小结56-57
第五章 总结与展望57-59
    5.1 本文主要工作总结57-58
    5.2 PID控制器的前景展望58-59
参考文献59-61
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况61-62
致谢62-64
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