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换向器滚压加工过程检测系统研究

Research on Detection System for Commutator Rolling Process

作者: 专业:机械电子工程 导师:张军 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Commutator, Rolling Process, Gap, Eddy Current Sensor, Piezoelectric Dynamometer

        换向器主要应用于电机、起动机等设备中,是某些机械装置中不可或缺的部分。换向器的加工精度很大程度影响了这些装置的性能好坏,特别是在一些特殊的领域。换向器加工的第一到工序是将板型工件通过滚压形成圆环形,并在两端接触部位形成间隙,该间隙的大小直接决定了换向器的性能,所以需要对该间隙进行检测。对换向器间隙的检测也就是对位移的检测。检测位移的方法多种多样,其原理也各不相同。迄今为止,国内外对零件加工过程检测研究方面也已有一定的研究,并取得了一些可借鉴的成果。但由于零件对象和加工环境条件的不同,零件检测的具体要求与所考虑的因素各不相同,因此,有必要针对某些关键零部件的具体技术要求进行具体研究,才能决定应用什么样的检测方法。根据换向器滚压加工成形的要求,在比较了多种检测方法和传感器的基础上,提出选用电涡流传感方法对换向器成形的接触间隙进行检测,同时利用压电测力方法主动检测成形过程力的变化,两种信息共同构成检测系统。两种信号相辅相成,弥补了单一信号的不足,提高了检测系统的准确性和可靠性。本文对电涡流传感器的性能进行了研究,设计了实验,并通过实验数据验证使用电涡流传感器的可行性;设计了用于检测滚压力的测力仪并进行了标定,得到测力仪的非线性误差,重复性误差,以及向间横向干扰等重要参数,标定结果显示均符合标准。研究了一些可能影响检测系统正常工作的因素,进行了实验验证并采取相应措施减轻或消除了影响。通过对实验数据的分析,得到了工件加工合格时的检测依据,并通过模拟实验进行了验证。
    As an integral part of some mechanical devices, commutator is mainly used in motors, starters and other equipments. The machining accuracy of commutator significantly affects the performance of these devices, especially in some special areas. The first step of the commutator machining process is to roll the plate work piece to form a round ring, and form a gap between both ends of the contact area. The size of the gap will directly determine the performance of the commutator, so it is necessary to detect the gap.The detection of the gap of commutator is detection of the displacement. There are a variety of methods to detect displacement, and the principles are also different. So far, the parts processing detection has been researched at home and abroad, which also made some results can be learned. However, due to the different of parts and processing conditions, the specific requirements of parts and factors to be considered are different. Therefore, it is necessary for the specific technical requirements of certain key components to do specific studies to determine what kind of detection method. According to the requirements of commutator rolling machining forming, a variety of detection methods and sensors were compared. During forming process, the eddy current sensing method was put forward to detect the contact gap of commutator, and the piezoelectric force sensing measurement was used to detect the force change. Two kinds of information were fused to constitute the detection system. Two kinds of signals complement each other to make up the insufficiency of sole signal, and the system’s accuracy and the reliability were enhanced.In this paper, the performance of eddy current sensor was studied, the experiments were designed, and the feasibility of using the eddy current sensor was validated through the experimental data. A dynamometer which used to detect the roller pressure was designed and calibrated, some important parameters such as the non-linear error, the repeatability error and the horizontal interference were got, and the results met the standards. In addition, this paper researched on the factors that affected detection system and experimental verification, and took appropriate measures to reduce or eliminate the influences. Through the analysis of experimental data, when the work piece qualified was obtained and verified by simulation experiment.
        

换向器滚压加工过程检测系统研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5
1 绪论10-18
    1.1 课题来源、研究目的及意义10-11
    1.2 换向器的结构和原理11-12
    1.3 滚压加工12-13
        1.3.1 滚压加工原理12-13
        1.3.2 滚压加工分类13
        1.3.3 滚压加工优点13
    1.4 国内外研究概况及发展趋势13-16
    1.5 课题的主要研究内容16-18
2 检测系统方案设计18-25
    2.1 检测方案总体设计18
    2.2 位移检测部分方案的确定18-22
        2.2.1 传感器的选择18-19
        2.2.2 方案的确定19-22
    2.3 力检测部分方案的确定22-24
        2.3.1 传感器的选择22-23
        2.3.2 方案的确定23-24
    2.4 本章小结24-25
3 电涡流传感器可行性研究25-37
    3.1 电涡流传感器基础理论25-27
        3.1.1 电涡流传感器的工作原理25-26
        3.1.2 集肤效应26
        3.1.3 影响因素及应用26-27
    3.2 电涡流传感器可行性实验与分析27-36
        3.2.1 电涡流传感器安装间隙实验27-28
        3.2.2 不同被测体材料的影响28-29
        3.2.3 被测体不同几何尺寸的影响29-30
        3.2.4 间隙宽度实验30-31
        3.2.5 间隙深度实验31-32
        3.2.6 转速的影响32
        3.2.7 电压降低方案32-36
    3.3 本章小结36-37
4 压电测力仪的设计与标定实验37-54
    4.1 压电效应37-38
    4.2 测力仪的测力原理38-40
        4.2.1 xy单元晶组38-39
        4.2.2 yx单元晶组的构成39
        4.2.3 组合晶组方案选择39-40
    4.3 测力仪的设计40-45
        4.3.1 测力仪结构设计的原则40
        4.3.2 测力仪壳体设计40-42
        4.3.3 测力仪预紧方案选择42-43
        4.3.4 测力仪量程计算43-44
        4.3.5 测力仪的装配44
        4.3.6 滚压工具设计44-45
    4.4 压电测力仪的实验分析45-53
        4.4.1 静态标定45-51
        4.4.2 动态标定51-53
    4.5 本章小结53-54
5 检测系统实验研究与分析54-64
    5.1 检测系统组成54-55
    5.2 影响检测系统的因素55-60
        5.2.1 轴偏心的影响55-56
        5.2.2 试件接触间隙边缘翘曲56-58
        5.2.3 压轮与夹具轴的接触位置58-59
        5.2.4 间隙对测力仪的影响59-60
    5.3 实验与分析60-63
    5.4 本章小结63-64
结论64-65
参考文献65-68
附录A 部分实物照片68-69
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况69-70
致谢70-72
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